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ONTAEIO 



AGRICULTURAL COMMISSION. 



AFI^EJNTDIX 



CONTAININa RETPSNS BELAT: 




^REA 



With he Compliments of 

s. o. ^vvoor>, 

Vommiaaioner of Agriculture for Ontario, 

Toronto. 



5> .2 










S«ronta: 

PRINTED BY C. BLACKETT ROBINSON. 6 JORDAN STREET. 



1881. 



1 



THE 



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ONTARIO 



AGRICULTURAL COMMISSION. 




APF^EISTDIX 



CONTAINING RETURNS RELATIl*!SraWHp^N 



THE SOIL, CLIMATE, TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES. CULTIVABLE AREA 

AND PRODUCTS OF, AND THE PROGRESS AND 

CONDITION OF HUSBANDRY 



IN THK 



PROVINCE OF ONTARI 



O 



VOL. il. 






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PRINTED BY C. ELACKETT ROBINSON, 5 JORDAN STREET. 

1881. 



Con 



Intboi 

Brant 

Bruce ' 

Carleto 

Durhai 

Elgin ( 

Essex ( 

Frontei 

Grey C( 

Haldiia 

Halibur 

Halton 

Hasting 

Huron i 

Kent Cc 

Lambto 

Lanark 

Leeds ai 

Lennox 

Lincoln 

Middles( 

Norfolk ' 

Ontario 

Oxford ( 

Peel Coi 

Perth Co 

Peterbor 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



OF 



VOLUME II. 



APPENDIX B, 

CONXAININO S™TZCA. InKOKMATION B«^T,N0 XO THK So:.. CuMATK. ToPOOKAPHIOA. FKATUBKa 

Cultivable Abea and Productb, and the Pbogbkss and Condition of 

HU8BANDBY IN THK PROVINCE OF ONTABIO. 






Intboductoby 

Brant County Summary- 
Bruce County " 

Carleton County " 

Durham and Northumberland " 

Elgin County « 

Essex County <» 

Frontenac County •» 

Grey County ,.. u 

Haldimand County 'i 

HaUburton County " 

Halton County 

Hastings County 

Huron County 

Kent County 

Lambton County 

Lanark County 

Leeds and Grenville 

Lennox and Addingtou 

Lincoln County 

Middlesex County 

Norfolk County 

Ontario County 

Oxford County 

Peel County 

Perth County 

Peterborough County 



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Paok. 

-Map— Tabular Returns 2—12 

18—34 

•— 35—52 

53—72 

7&— 89 

90—106 

107—127 

128—146 

147—168 

164—177 

178—188 

189—208 

209—281 

232—249 

250—367 

208—287 

288—309 

310— 32f. 

826—838 

389—359 

360—378 

874—893 

394—411 

412—423 

424—443 

444-461 



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ONTARIO AGRICtJLTTTRAL OOMMISSION. 



2^^;::^^^::::::"^^------- ^^«i 

Benfrew County „ 

Bimooe Couniv. 

•' " •! 

Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry. " i< 

Victoria County ' „ „ 

Waterloo County „ „ 

Welland County / ,, „ 

Wellington County « „ 

Wentworth County u „ 

York County .. 

Dufferin, New County •• „ 



z= 



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II 
II 
II 



.482—496 

..497—520 

..521—545 

..546—567 

..668—686 

..587—599 

,.600—618 

.614—688 

.684—647 

.P48— 667 

668 



Paqi. 
..462—481 
..482—496 
.497—620 
.621—545 
.646—667 
.668—686 
.687—699 
.600—618 
614—688 
684—647 
P48— 667 
668 



ONTARIO AGRICULTURAL COMMISSION 




APPENDIX B. 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO: 

CTS SOIL-CLIMATE-METEOROLOaiCAL CHARACTERISTICS-TOPO- 
GRAPHICAL FEATURES-CULTIVABLE AREA AND 
PRODUCTS-AND THE PROGRESS AND 
CONDITION OF HUSBANDRY. 



attended, on invi 
It is not, of I 
in a statistical ecu 
officials specially dt 



to Je3«::"^^^^^ -piled .0. answe. 

Municipalities of ^V^ ' .^. W „ ,f T" '""^ "^'"'^ '' '''' ^^^^^ ^^--^ 

" ^.. It has usually been prepared at meetings of the Councils 
'^er leading ratepayers and agriculturists of the municipahty'. 
-, that the whole of the information thus obtained will, 
bsolute precision and accuracy of returns collected by 

atientionto an l^„^, „... .ZriTdeLT"""'"' '" «'™« ""'' ""^ -" 
nnp.-cj„<Iicea view o! the .!ric„Z«t -I ""^ "°''°-'""'' ""^ *" ' '"' '"'«•' '""' 

Ky Hie Commission. ^^ documentary evidence collected 

The county map. will aseist the reader in his reference to the tabular statement,. 

Sorviee, .0 e.Lr ,v,th th^c'-al evaen^ o» L" "f"' ''°""''°" *'=->»»-»■ 

»r-. aj.pended. *° '°"° ™''J'=°' '"k"" by «■<> Commission, 



COUNTY OF FlIANT. 



Skttlement. 



Tho floltlement of Huh county coraracnccd in 1798, in what is now tho TownHliip of 
Burfoid, but tbo process can harilly be ;<iiiil to liavo been completed until (iiiito re 
ceiitly. The latest settled townahip is Onondaga, into wiiich tho firat settlorK onto.ed in 
1838: tho land was rapidly taken up, and settlement may be said to have boon con. 
pletod in seven years, with tho exception of some IGOO acres hold then, as now, as au 
Indian Boservo. 

Soil, Roads, and Drainaob. 

Tho soil is described as being generally a rich clay, and a mixed clay and sand loam, 
much in favour with agricnlturistH, because adapted to a variety of crops. Tlio county 
is w«ll watered, the Grand River flowing Uirough its centre and allbrdiug excellent 
facilities for drainage. Brant also poesesses exceptionally good raihvay facilities, to- 
gether with good local roads, gravelled and macadamized. 

Mabket Facilities, 

Its marliet facilities are first-class, both within and without its limits Brantford 
and Paris, the principal centres, are hardly more in favour with the farmi'ig populetioD 
in their imraediate localities, than are Hamilton and Woodstock in the adjoining coun- 
ties, with the farmers on the borders of Brant. 

Acreage and Population. 



Tho township acreage of Brant amounts to 223,215, 
Qship; the cleared acreage amounts to 170,bll, or an averaRo of Bl,062 per 



, . or an average of 44,643 per 
township ; the clca: 

township; accordinj to the census of 1871 the total population of tho county „^a 
B2,259 ; bat the City of Brantford now has a population of about 10,GB8, and the Town 
of Paris 8,098. 

Stooe Statistics. 

The townships sustain 14,737 horned cattle, 7,863 horses, 18,766 sheep and 5,009 
hogs — over two-thirds of the whole being in the older-settled Townships of Br atford 
and Burford. In some townships live stock of improved breeds has been imported, but 
in most cases farm animals are native and ordinary. Though facilities for improving 
stock may be said to be at the very door of the farmer, yet too little advantage has 
been taken of them. 

Local Industries. 

Nine cheese factories, an iron foundry, (in which first-class stoves are manufactured,) 
an agricultural implement factory and six flouring mills, all doing a good run of busi- 
ness — also a large number of mechanical industries dependent on the agricultural popu- 
lation, attedt the fact that Brant possesses all the elements nec3ssary to ensure per- 
manent prospe ! ;y. 

Capacity op the Land. 

The Township of Brantford is especially adapted for grt.in raising ; the other town- 
ships, Burfoid, South Dumfries, Onondaga, and Oakland, are equally suitable for graLv 
raising, stock raising and dairying. 



3 



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-ipi.l^f are good for many years. ^ ^^^ *° '^^ P°^' °or<J. »nd U»e prosnecta oi 

>v].c.n;Tcre;: ": t rciotrth: v-^ "''' ''''^- ^^^ --.ago yioia of rm 

growth in 19 per cent. ; of sn^S. whoafO rf."? P^''l'°/L'«" "far Mo Jand deVtod to ita 
lio aero and !).i per cont. : Ko Vs bJ i,?it ^'if' ''"'^ ^ * P" <'''"*• ^ "'vts. 80 bn hols to 
busnei. per aero ind ««; cJnt corn ?8 bu«b J/°.""" ^'"''^^1^ "^"^^ ero;n) ; 1 .. '15 
SObuBholB per aero (hardly any grownf p"ot 1^' V?r. "f ,^ ^ buik^vJcat. 

cent.; turnips, 4G0 bushels nern^ro 3' PotatocH, 118 bushola per acre and 2k npi^ 
per ce.t. Few roots are grown ZtheallT n°H ^^T" ' ^ *""« P°r ac" an/20 
^B inapprociablo. About SJeen p r Vent of / I il'^^"f ^''^'^ "P ^^^ "'^'^ cultfvation 
BeurJy two per cent, is taken up Kcharde. ^'"^ '*^''^° '' ""^°^ Pa^turage. anS 

. . ClIAR/CTEn OF THE LaND. 

tivatii^YeTSHr:^^^^^^^ S^it in'r "t.f ^'^^-^ — '« «""«^^° ^or cuU 
stony or rocky land, and a very smfl rLrlw-^ ' T^ *'',''° ''"' '^^ '^''«°8t total absence of 
for profitable cultivation. Sed neLTrt i°^ ? ^^ ''T"^ ^« ''^"'^'^ «« '°o SiK 
cephona ly good cultivable rSg Ia„l ^thl r^.n;' t-"'""*^ .™"^ ^^ ^<^«°"bed as ei^ 
iiat, bottonj, wet or springy l^nds »- " > W, L?*-^ 1''°". "°™'"S: within the category of 
acreage may be designated fix"t c' >' Sr„^"'* ''"'*; ^^""^ 70 per cent, of the de/red 
equally divided intofecond anl t^ ' d cias^ef Zl'-"""^ T'T''' *^° '^'^'""^^^r maj bo 
portion just advertod to. *''''"' ^'''^'"8 out of consideration the smail pro- 

Febtittzers. 

Couni;"of'H:£Ld.^nfo7t'lt''t^f -^^1^""^ ^'.^^^'^ -"'I i- the neighbonrin« 
with Paris Hi BrantforHnab e tl^e famer?;^''"-? ?'''''' '^'^^^^ communTca SS 
gram a„d roots and on grass Ian L Thes^SH r "'" ^*'^'''5 '^^^^^ ^'^^^ and plaster fo? 
and as their value becomes morrttroSvntw f 7^^ "''^, ^^ considerable extent, 
in larger proportions. ^i^orougiily miderstood they will, doubtless, be emplo/od 

. . ^^M Houses anb Outbuildings. 

W.bed =, indifferent, thJe-tS, .ritrtdtriSl^. *' °""°"«"«' "» 

TT ■,, Drainage. 

ing --inr7Jtet!^TenS^^^^^^ ? ^'^^ -^ of farm drainage-the roll- 

thero are some tracts ^hicTSthTcnlT/'V^ *^^'' "^ '"'"^ °"^«'' ^'^tncts. sS 
probable the owners may yetSlo aSvZn '"^V ^P'"^'^ ^^ *"^ 'J^'ai^age, and i ia 
ment assistance. ^ ^ '® *^^ advantage of domg so, with or without Govern! 

m. Improved Machinery. 

.Wla m la„ gra„ and gatheS hi, h./vSr'aidS?:te7vhr„'JoS„\'° ~"°'^ 

J- Labourers and Domestic St ants 



Mechanics. 

But the class of meclianics usually found in agricultural communities, such as 
blacksmiths, carpenters, masons, shoemakers, etc., are sufficiently represented. 

Bbantford City. 

The City of Brantford is, by common consent, one of the most picturesque in the 
Dominion, and tlie scenery of the county more nearly resembles that of the southwest- 
ern counties of England than is to be found, perhaps, in any other part of Ontario. 

Bow Paek. 

Quite a feature in the agriculture of Brant is the well known stock farrc. called 
Bow Park, formerly owned by the Hon. George Brown, and now belonging to a Joint 
btock Company. Upon the farm, which consists of 900 acres, a system of mixed hus- 
bandry has, for several years, been carried on, and much attention has been devoted, 
with considerable success, to the breeding and raising of horses, cattle, sheep and pigs. 
The proprietary has recently decided on confining itself in the future exclusively to the 
raising and breeding of Shorthorns. 

Fruit Growing. 

Almost every description of non-tropical fruit known to culturists is successfully 
raised in the districts surrounding Paris, in this county. Apples, pears, cherries, grapes, 
plums, strawberries, raspberries, are grown in profusion, and large quantities of winter 
apples and pears are annually shipped to home and foreign markets. Peaches are also 
grown to some extent. Fruit culture here is, in fact, capable of almost indefinite ex- 
tension. Of the total area under fruit culture, two-thirds is growing apples and one- 
third other fruits. 

Municipal Statistics. 

According to the last pviblished Municipal Statistics of the Province of Ontario 
(1878), the total number of acres assessed, in the County of Brant, exclusive of the 
city of Brantford and the town of Paris, was 215,902 ; the total number of ratepayers assess- 
ed, 4,999; while coming under the head of "assets," we find that the assessed value 
of real estate was $9,472,709; the assessed value of personal property, $1,033,021; the 
amount of taxable income, $40,000; total amount of arrears of taxes, $3,532; other 
assets, $102,021— making a grand total of $10,052,003. On the other hand the "ha- 
bilities" only amount to $26,988, of which $25,870 is due by the Township of Bm-ford, 
and $1,568 by the Township of Onondaga, under the head of " corporation debentures." 
The total revenues for all purposes and from all sources, during 1878, amounted to 
$97,454. In the city of Brantford the number of acres assessed is 1,781, and the num- 
ber of ratepayers assessed, 1,848. Under the hea' of assets, $2,891,050 is set down 
as the assessed value of real estate ; $480,680 as .he assessed value of personal pro- 
perty; $117,400 as the amount of taxable income; $19,418 as the total amount 
of arrears of taxes, and $24,576 as "other assets" — making a grand total of $3,583,- 
124, or considerably more than one-third of the county assets. The liabihties are — 
corporation debentures, $20,000 ; principal amount due to the Municipal Loan Fund, 
§194,018; other liabilities, $10,895— in all, $224,413. The total revenues, for all 
imrposes and from all sources, in 1878, amounted to $114,592. Paris has 085 acres 
assessed, and 816 ratepayers. The assets consist of $833,340, real estate ; $lil,- 
577, personal property; $19,515, taxable income; ^1,061, arrears of taxes, 
and $27,207, other assets. There are no liabilities. The total revenue for all pur- 
poses and from all sources, in 1878, amounted to $19,225, 

Stock By-Laws. 

Stock by-laws exists in this county, but they are practically inoperative, except iu 
Brr, tfordand BurforJ townsliipg> Animnls are somfitimcs impminded when damage 
is done, but cows, sheep, and otL3r animals run at large in the other townships. 



1 







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But the claat 
blacksmiths, carp( 



The City of E 
Dominion, and th( 
em counties of Ei 



Quite a featu 
Bow Park, former! 
Btock Company, 
bnndry has, for se^ 
With considerable j 
The proprietary ha 
raising and breedii 



Almost every 
raised in the distrii 
plums, strawberrief 
apples and pears ai 
grown to some exU 
tension. Of the to 
thud other fruits. 

i 

According to 

(1878), the total n 

city of Brautford an 

ed, 4,999; while cc 

of real estate was | 

amount of taxable 

assets, $102,021—1 

bilities" only anoui 

acd $1,568 by the' 

The total revenues 

$97,454. In the ci 

ber of ratepayers a 

as the assessed val 

perty; $117,400 a 

of arrears of taxes 

124, or considerab 

corporation debenti 

$194,018; other hi 

purposes and from i 

assessed, and 816 

C77, personal pro] 

and $27,267, other 

poses and from all s 



Btock by-laws ( 
Brautford and Burfc 
is done, but cows, si 




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COUNTY OP BEUCE. 



Settlkment. 



of thrtJL^-TStvJ Zoc'S^aiZTn? '^^^"f, "-"^"-^ - ^«^«- Some 
be completed Jthe process hav uToTcuierfr^m oS ««"lomeut may be said^o 

settlement may bo taken to prove the suneri^ «,.«£ *'°'^ I'*?' ^'^'^ ^'^P^'lity of 
purposes. ^ ^^ ^"® supeuor excellence of tbe land for agricultural 

Soil. 

subsdl^VbfrdVnS "Sn^^^ prcaominating-with a 

and stony land in tli. Townships TbT.TaZI? ' ? considerable quantity of rocky 
the land in the county ,s rSgld cuE ^ ^"^« P^«P"rtion o^ 

as bot om, swampy and sprilgy land Aboit tl irfv iv ''*''^' T'^.^^ '' <J«^«"bed 
cultivation is reported as first-class for nJrS ^^V^^^-^^^ P^' cent, of the area under 
cent, as second-is. and ttttaL^J trtrpercL^trErciar''^^ '^^^"^^ ^er 

Wateb. 
'^'-'^^^^^^S^^^^X^^IZSS:^ -^-^ wen. T,e UU. a„ 

Pricb of Farms. 
toildmg., will fetch from $4 000 to S5 000 ^r.™^ ?,"' '"'• "'"' ''»""« ""d out 



Stumps. 



....m?,i?ir^Str.;i\jt°i^tTco:° r°£t ?:""■ ""«! "'- »' -* -«-» 

■ns, fox the most part, in swampy laud ' "° J"°° """'»• *« Piisgtow. 

Fences. 

Houses and Outbuildings. 



14 



Deainage. 
Farbt Machinery. 



Fertilizers. 

that the land, Laving Icon so lately settloci, retaui/a good deal ofls virgin ddmess 
Uncleared Land Suitable for Cultivation. 

Acreage. 

The township acreage of the county is given as 760,83Gf , or an average of 54,345 
per township ; the number of cleared acres as 331,890,1, or an average of 23,707 per 
towuslup. The proportion of the acreage devoted to fall wheat may be estimated at 
about 12 per cent, of the laud ui^der c-jltivatiou, and the average yield about 25 bushels 
per acre; to spnng wheat about 15 per cent, and 15 bushels to the acre; to barley, 
about 4 per cent, and 30 bushels to the acre ; to oats about 12 per cent, and 35 bushels 
to the acre ; to rye (hardly any grown), 16 bushels to the acre; to peas, about 10 per 
cent, and 25 bushels to the acre; tr corn (hardly any grown), about 20 bushels to the 
acre; to buckwheat (hardly any grown), about 30 bushels to the acre; to potatoes, about 
1 percent, and about 125 bushels to the acre; to turnips, about 3 percent, and 500 
bushels to the acre; to other root crops (few grown), not to be estimated; to hay, about 
10 per cent, and 1^ tons per acre; to pasture, about 15 per cent.: to orchards, about 1 
per cent. 

Population. 
The population, according to the last census (1871), amounted to 48,515. i 

Stock Statistics. 

,.,J^' *7f^'^!P '^^"^-"^g'^^ 37,CG3 head of horned cattle, 19,074 horses, 35,383 
sheep and hi,Go3 hogs A good many farmnrs arc making preparations to convert 
heir farms now devoted to mixed husbandry, into exclusive'fy stoik farm iCcom 
bmat^on of stock farming with dairying will, it is to be hoped, largely pre' "ntt^o 
possibihty of a deterioration of the soil of this splendid new comty-a result which has 
proved disastrous m too many other sections of the rroviiico. 



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15 



Flax Cultuke. 
Three hundred acres are devoted to flax culture in the Township of Carrick. 

Stock Raising. 

and owmg to the counly beino wcU VdniiM fnt fi .^' f ?'''° '"='«"«i'ely carried on. 
that lius tasbess mil have co^sSMelviXS iu ^."1^ f """t" " '» '"'"j' 
*ct ha. bee. introducedrn =o.e of tU. t„w^Xr*^"„t£°:ri:„i";^^^^^^ 

Timber. 

and Inmber, and the bark CtmningAhZ^."Z' ^'T , 5^^°';^ ^« "«^<1 ^^^ ^"^1 
sups comes within the denominatte?' of " wiS.!^ "'rf *,: °^ [^' ^''^'' ^ *^^ *°™- 
olm, basswood and pine are usTin f^h "*'^'^^°7- Oak, white ash, cherry, maple, 

mentsandfurniture^HemfocI cedar and Wr?*r °^ '''^''^'' -§ri°«"urai imple.' 

miocK, ceaar and tamarack, are m request for railway ties. 

Maeket Facilities. 

fai J-s "n t": wSs oftrly J^ell^S taf ^f'o ' "^S"" ^/^^ °"*-^^ ^'^^ --^y- Th. 
ping IS done. Port Elgin. ScaXe?So^ithanp^ !Zf' ^Y'' " '''^ ^'^^'^ ^^^P" 
markets and shippmg ports. At WaLrton WWi ' ^'^^I'^verhnron, are also excellent 
are also good markets. VValkeiton, Wingham, Teeswater, and Southampton, 

Flouring Millj, Factories, etc 

woollen mills and foundrief. dependeiLn "Sarmkg clmSy'" ''''''' *^""^^-^^^' 

The KiNCARmNE Salt Wells-Local Industries, 

There are extensive sdt wells at Kincardine wliiVJ, „; i 

number of persons. Large quantities are Enpr^' Z^lff ^"^%^^"'P^''y'^^"* *« a largo 
ports-the article having I hig^c mracter an7bei "?n '"^ K>"«^rdine to Americfa 
pork packers. There afe several SrlocaTtdusri« l'^ ''f^''^ '^'"""^ ^^^^ern 
Ployment to a considerable numb™ of SLiS arkbn^;"°''''^T' ^^'«1^ give em- 
are saw and planing mills, foundries, woXTwaL^n ct ir f' ^''. '^^^^ "^' *^^^^ 
factones-also a bath-brick -anufacWy. beli^vrdX b^ tr^nTyT^et tt'^^^^^^^^^^ 

Fruit Culture. 

hardly bo said to oxi.st-a few seedlhi4 onlv r!,S i^ is unfatted. Peach culture can 
poarn b.vc ],oon grown succifuH ^^omo ^/vtr? ot ft'^"- "^'^"^1 'r" ^^^''-^' "«^ 
varieties form nearly one-fourth of the fruh c ^p "''*^' '^'"'^ P^"'"^ «' '^iff'=^'eii<-' 



16 



Railroads, etc, 

The southern division of Bruce is well provided with railroad facilities— two lines 
the Wellington, Grey and Bruco running north to the ports of Kincardine and Southamp- 
ton, and the loronto, Grey and Bruce to the terminus at Teeswator. 

Municipal Statistics. 

No returns have been forwarded from Bruce during the past two years, showing: 
either the assessment, or assets and liabilities. 



Stock By-Laws 



Exist in every township, but they are nowhere rigidly enforced. Cattle are only im- 
pounded when damage is done, and convictioub before justices are extremely rare. 




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COUNTY OF CAELETON 



^oJJ::tu^n,Tim^^^^^^^ Township of Nepean in 1810, and 

u..til 1874, the population KaduallTauJr^^^ Township of Osgoode. From that date 
seven-eighths of ^e county if occu%^^^ "'^^'^ ""^' '' "^^^ ^« '^^'^ '^^^ ^^lly 



Oharactbb o» the Soil. 

is called the Mer Bleu; in Goulhourn tC are oveVl4 on^^^ tract of peat land, in whi 
deep black soil, while, in the other fowSr a roVdo'al nf^^^^^ of swampy land, with 
unfit for profitable cultivation The TownThin ffw .i °V^® ^•'^"'^ '" ^"^ ^°«ky ^^ *» ^^ 
853 acres of this rocky td' Jut v'aTtaL^'^r^^^^^^^ 'ZtttV'- 
stone rock predonunatea. and is larMlv nso^ fr.1 wi T- "^"^'""yii .{^as 11,635. Limo- 
the cultivable land abou one half L reported first c?ai«'?Ji. T^- ^V^'T^ ^"^'P'"''- ^^ 
one-(iuarter second-class, and thrremaimW 1/4^^^^^^^^^ f\ agrioiJtural purposes, about 
springy land in the county ^'°^^'"'°g ^"^'te^ third-class. There is very little wet, 

Water. 
W.,er can be obUined by ZZ X*s TjyJLTt'Jn^f^mZr" ""''"" "'""^ 



Price of Farms. 

^^^onV.Ss:to:r?s,^^^^^^^^ Zoii a ^v^^ ^Z'^^*" ^^-^^^^ 

quoted as low as $5 per acre ' ^ '°°°- ^"^ ^^^ township land is 



Stumps. 



.e .ts rs/ Krr,^r;ir:Tb-roi»z™S -s - 



m 



hemlock and tamarack. 



Fences. 
princfpX^"ctdaf °' *^' '""^ ^^^ ^^^^^^'^^ *« ''<' -'^- fi-t-class fence, consisting 



36 



ft« 



IIuiTHKH AND OlJTIlUILDINOH. 
nitAINAUB. 

i.»vo w!': ;SrJ;;':irr'r :;",''i,"'''"° ■" ""• i"""!'"' ".«io™i ...upioyo,,. th.. 



Faum Maciiinkuy. 



Labour 



HavinK machinoa «ro usod by ovor tlu-oo-fourths of tho farmers. 



Fkutiuzkuh. 



...,;'«-- '."vo boou „.„,, t. » »a:;l::r,;r;rrrj;fr;Tr„'t;;'t,r 

Unolkabkd Lands. 

ouUi^S''"o?c£d!' "" """''-^'^'"^ ^'"''^ '» *'- °--ty «»- reported aa suitable for 

Aorkagk, etc. 

which !Crtr!!;,:;r!y;i:ont SrifJi "^^^ '""""^'"^ «- *--^»P of Mnnborou^h. 

to soyoral of the returns hom2i^[o^A^: f'"^ ^"^^/'"'"ot bo estinmtod, owing 
butflioyiohl is ftlMu.)xin,atolv aU as a .^'^^^^ '"' incomploto state! 

firnng. 16 busiu'ls; barloy. 80 busho s o.?f. '^,\' "^' "« <^^''l ^vhoat. 20 bushels per acre 
corn. or. bushels ; inaM^w u^a 'S h si, « \t^^^ H" Y''^''^'' I^'^'^- '-^0 l.ushels 

other root crops, 420 bushels ; Im^l tt/plr acre! "'^'^'' *"'"'^''' '^^^ ^""^''^^^ ' 

Population. 

The population of Carloton. exclusive of tl.o r;fv ^r n»* 
ccnsua of 1671-21,78!). Tho . onul i. n of rV/f . •• -^ ^ *'''^*' '^'^8-ncccr,ll„<. to the 

xut population of Ottawa is m tho uoighbourhoocl of 21,000: 

OAPAcrrv OF the Land. 

for local ana outside markets S stock Sn ^t * " n " ^'"'^^ ""'^^'^^'^ «^ ^'^^ '^^«V'^« 
able portion of the land is s^iu ubeml hlTL ''^ ff^ reui"uorative. A consider- 



87 



>no, or firHt- 
liliiigo, ono- 



f'oil. Tilea 
»ioo of iin- 



Waoeb. 

Stock and Stock Laws. 

of latrn'rcSC'rtnrr^^^^^^^^^^^ Bomo attention has 

moBt co„,mon; but tho brcoda are bo« nn^g o^imn ovo fr '^'' ^^'"^^ ^^^''« "'^° "'' 
of Ottjuva and Marlborough) 18.525 homodcSoS'sni "°""*y,'"'*'"'^« ("''^"sivo 

uuloBB (laraaRo is done, when impounding is rosoS'to ^ «sno';alIy inoperative 



of super- 

Hiippoiut- 

iy. Suit 

mcuJow 



table for 



borouRh, 
liip; tho 
tlio pro- 
1, owing 
to state, 
3r acre ; 
>U8hels; 
)U8hol3 ; 



-^'bUIT CuLTUiF, 

Ottar^Se^Sfo'Ji^^ *- in and around 

very oncouraging. Tho neighbournood "f Ot awa Sa'tnft f T ?1'^"'"" '^^^ ^''^ 
and tho character of the soil, bcoius to bo a vo,?Va™S«^ T} °I *''° '"™"i«r «»° 
moKt of vmoyards-thore being no dilBcult? in rrnSf.- "'"« ^ ^''.' ^^'' '''^^^^^'^^ 
Tlu) cliiimctor of tho cranes crown l.ifJ^nif^ i ^ i P'^otcctmg the vines in winter 

nm,..l for good fruit ImTrsen'sbco cUy btL^'^tLrnT^'^'^'^^y ^'''- ^ '''^^^^^ 
m iio matter of strawborrios, tho distr ct docs notTpnvlt * °l ^?^'^J!^<^^i> and except 
c.gh toen lumdred barrels of apples have been "mnSd^f V ^^^T, '> ^^'°™ «<^^«"t<^''" to 
in Ottawa. Apple culture docs not always sScS tit „' ^''"•*° '^^P^-^ "lo demand 
of tho winter and tho destructivenoss of fnS of ^^^^^^^ ^iven being the severity 

may bo pronou.iced a failure, except a va?^t? of f bn V h"''"''' '^'^'^ ^'^'' '^"^ P^"'"^ 
Kussell Oou,ity, and said to be tirhardie t LoL '^p^^^^^^^ * r?''"^ ^^^^^^ '° 
pvc.^yn ; but experiments are being made wth the L ^T^T ""^ ^^''^"'^^ «^« «<>* 
borneaand melons, are, more or loss, succSl;,iy cu£^^^^^ currants, goose- 

Market Facilities. 
'.am naa Crlotoa Plsoe mKtoM Z much fc'auS ' ""' *"«"'"■ I'"''^"- 



T to the 
21,000. 



par- 
beoves 
isider- 
ill tho 
nships 
id soft 
uciug. 



Local Industries. 

bors^ofmrSrotK^^^^^^^ 

mor, who consume laio quantities of farm rr.I .'''^a^ *'*^f Chaudiere mills in sum- 

up in horses, Americaf b3??r8 comi„/o^^^^^^ ^ considerable trade has sprung 

plus stock. 'Three cheesed orLTafe vol "2u?h^rn?ff?''^r '\' "^^'^'^ °^ ^-'^ 
having proved profitable. Tho county contan?' fn n?iv ^"i^'^s ^lave been closed-not 

atthe Chaudiere, steam flouring Sll^ woo le^^^^^^ *.°-*^' ^'"T^^^ '^^ ^^^^ 

numerous lime kilns and brick van ThfZmSlflfn!^^^^^^^^^ '^^P' ^^^ 

njanufacturing, and, to some oxten a district .mt?'''' ^^^^t^^f tabHshmentof a 
Extensive mineral springs exist at T^*w"rl^'°?f;^^ !',« ^^^ to be unrivalled, 

waters are said to possess valuable "^iirativfi '^.^.f ' T "^'^ '"^""^ "Ottawa. The 
and neighbourhood. "'^'^'^ Pioportios. and are largely used in Ottawa 



88 



Municipal Statistics. 

The total number of acres assessed in Carleton, exclusive of the City of Ottawa, is 
CG0,980— and the number of ratepayers assessed, 7,860. Under the head of assets, 
07,392,486 is set down as the assessed vahie of real estate ; $448,705, personal property' 
>?2,800, taxable income; $86,880, arrears of taxes; and $01,734, "other assets"— 
forming a grand total of $7,087,110. The habilities amount to $100,098, of which 
$95,400 comes under the head of corporation debentures. The revenue for all pur- 
poses and from all sources amounts to $210,027. In tlie City of Ottawa the number of 
acres assessed is sot down at 1,829, and the number of ratepayers, 8,000. Under the 
liead of assets, $10,021,591 is shewn as the assessed value of real estate ; $080,020, per- 
sonal property ; $422,285, taxable income ; $114,407, arrears of taxes ; and $484,219, 
•'other assets"— making a grand total of $12,288,582, or nearly four and a half millionfj 
in excess of the county assets. The liabilities are correspondingly heavy. A sum of 
$2,187,000 is shown under the head of corporation debentures, while $545,000 appears 
under the head of "other HivbiUties"- in all $2,782,000. The total revenue from all 
sources amounts to $555,243. 

Mineral Products. 

Iron and phosphate mining are very extensively carried on within a short distance 
of Ottawa, on the Quebec side of the river. 



: Ottawa, is 
(I of assets, 
il property; 
r assets" — 
!, of which 
"or all pin- 

number of 

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alf million!:^ 

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COUNTIES OF 



DURHAM AND NOETHUMBERLAND. 



Settlement. 
^*Sn"l,S™trl"l^^1 '^"T*" °' °'"'''' - B-Aam, ia 1792 in Ho„ ■ 



WSarand rDS™trf„'°™ ^^T*" >" «»*«, to Durham, ia 1792 in H„„ ■ 



Character op the Soil 
gravelly, variable; black loam iLmRl.iT- ,'' ^^ '"^^^^^ «a^i<J. extremely vari«Hf 

Water. 

All the townships are well watered. Thn a^^^u ^ , • 
digging varies from 6 to 150 feet ^ ^^^^^ *** ^^^°^ ^ater can be obtained by 

Prices op Farms. 

. i.^£pL°^ '^m.Z'ZT^^V'SZ":"' =»"• '^ "-' <" *« townships 
acre; third oIms, $10 to $80 per acre l/'L T*' f'^ol-'hss, «40 to feo pS 

..«d . ,„„.ed.. ,„„„ »8%erU""ki/;;rrr;';v,'^rr.^^^^^^^^ 

Sruwps. 
Fenoks. 



64, 



^ 



Faem Houses and Outbuildings. 

.refl,st.class; the ^matairLfS" ' '' °°' ""' '""■ "' *» "'ft-iMtag' 

Drainage. 

Farm Machinery, eto. 
macbTuerjf '^^^^^^'^^^ P^"^ ««"*• «f tl^e farmers in these counties use improved farm 

Fertilizers. 

L' -ncleaked Landp 
its quality. * ' ^'''' ^ * '•^'^' uncleared aci'. . makos no return as to 

Acreage, and Average Products. 

^r^!^:^^^^'^S^^ 24M58I is cleared. Of 

cleared acreage is devoted to foil wheat ctwhH.tn •^''°''^ ^ ^'' "'"*• °^ ^^' ^^^^^ 
to tlio aer. ; spring wlieat, 20 ex cent -dn.,! V'^'^ '"' °" ^V^'^^'^S'^- 18 bushels 
and 2:^ bn.hels per acre ; Jats r, e^c^lt ^^^^^ ^''' '•"'''' b^-^^- 1^ per cent. 

10 bu.hels per acre; peas, Hi per cent ^nd k f^'^' ^''' '''''''^' (very little sown), 
SO bushel, per acre bucl^v^l'juTvei^ itHniw 1'?? ^'T f '" ' "'""" (^^^•^' ^^^tle sown 
cent, and DO bushels per acre ilr\,iti \ ^^ \'''^''^' ^'''■' ''"''"' > Potatoes, H per 

root crops, about thrSuStpT^^^r.,^^^^^^^ ^=^" ^'' ^^'^^ to the aero'; other 
H ton per acre ; pasture, 17 p^c^!- ::;:l^ra^ti'^^r' ' ""''' " '''' ^^"*- ^"^ 

Capacity of the Land. 

annuallv, and danyi Jg^een.fca laJl f ^Sb extenLn rh"'' '"t-^"^^ ^,^^""'^ 
earned on in both counties-paiicularlyVn NorSumbe^^^^^^^^^^ Ohee.e-makmg is largely 

Stock. 
Durham sustain 21,(j.50 horned e'lttl^ in77« i ^ A. :;^ , ' ^'^^ townships m 

T^.e „ ....„.,.■,..,, .,»1/C;aS, Sib' ,S^^ ,1^ rl'f !; ^, 

Timber Lands. 
taikling, feiioiug, auj barrel staves. Pimcjauy lor W, il,e latter for 



6B 



i frame ; the 
outbuildings 



all the farms 



proved farm 



ties varying 
: noticeable 



oultivation 
sturn as to 



eared. Of 
)f the total 
18 bushels 
per cent, 
ttle sown), 
ttle sown), 
)es, 1:^ per 
3ro ; other 
• cent, and 



but stock 
d shi^ijicd 
is largely 



ho Town- 
nships in 
520 1101,'s. 
iiul 8,491 



)d, cedar, 
latter for 



Mabhkt Faoiutiks. 
erwel ro.48 l^diig thereto are geSly goT ™°"'°''' ""' "«' ««'>''d«'"i»ed Td 



Local Industbie 



s. 



a woSLtf?ettrSviS'£t?or^^^ ^- (-torn) w.ollen mills. 

shop ten shingle m\lls,Vnd (at BowmLvflle^^ a I'lfP ^"^ ^'^''^^i^e 

furniture and piano and organ factories Nm-HmfniffT/'*''^^''^'"^"*' ao'i large 
grist mills, three woollen miUs, twen v four ow!^f ^' ''"'^ ^^' '^"" foundries, eight 
saw mills and five shingle ^nml^^t^JZl^^^^^^^^^^^ -"^/tweU 

Population. 

thumlda^SeV''^'''^' ''"''''''^ '' '^« --«"« of 1871. was 37,880. ' Of Nor- 

Municipal Statistics. 

ber o^ll^eL^^^^^^^^^ --«- (1878), 810,523; total num- 

798; assesstd value of personal pr^ortv I i/'^i'n'^ '^ ? '^ ''''^ '''^''' ^25,45^ 
of taxes, 8874,209; other assc s 3 or w. ' ^^^^^^^ taxable mcome, $96,049; arreai's 
Liabilities: Corporation debent ^r Vlfs i ^i?"^^^^^ of $27,237,858.09 

Town of T5owma.mlle; pi4cipa7 amount d/fV fl aV'^ -^ '' '^^ ^o^^" to the 

other liabilities, $10,451-hi^S 6317 %V t£o t f """^^"^ ^/"^ ^""^^' §1^^.500 • 
from all sources, in 1878, amounted to '5o9 40^^ '"[^''''T' ^'' ^1! ^'''^''''' ^^^ 
assessed, 2,0G9-|. ; number of ratepayers asi.tll^^ ^,S ! ^"""T"" '' ^^ "'"^^^ °f ^^^'^^ 
Sl,332,2(il ; assessed value of pSnal p^S^^^ i\%t\r^T''^\'''^^''' "^ '''^ ^^t^*«. 
m all $1,550,041. Liabilities • Co3'S nf i i' ^1"^'^"'^ t^^«^l« income, 864,630-; 
due to Mmiicipal Loan F nV Sooo fl^ i IT/- ^^\«'1«7; principal amount 
Total rc.veuue,'§G4,398.-Ku;-tXx'Ho^^^^^^^^ •^B,894-in all 8289,061. 

her of ratepayers ark.ssed, 1.541 Assets lUoTf'^* acres assessed. 984; num- 
persoual property, 8210,780; axable income It^^OO ''"«"' ""^ 'f\ ''*^*'' ^^'^^0,37G; 
assets, 858,607-in aU 81 838 -^03 t3;'? ' /^ ' ^^^^^rs of taxes, 84,740 : other 
principal amount due to the Sn cipal £an rS .^r'K'^'". '^'^T''''"'' '"''''•^^O ; 
other liabilities. 818.302-in all 817^^'^ 53 ^^'^^o! °"^'"'' ''''''' 



Stock J5v-La\v.^ 



Tlioso exif 



forced. The 'poor man's cow ' doe. nnf!!!^ A ! -'^^■^''^''' '" "hardly ever en- 
account of the krge numbeirof yoZ cattiranT^^ ^""f^* "* ^^' ^°^^^ l'^^t"^'« «° 
farmers, rimning on the same road "^ ^"'^ '^''^' ^'^^^S^^S to two-tliirds of the 

Communications. 
outaKlc ..,e.». N„rt„„aerla„a hafieSg^ra'/elS ^^IriLlriol^tl S 



oQ 



^itersected by the Graud Trunk, Grand Junction, and CoLonrg and Pcforhorou-h Eail 

|"ad .lata " "' *^'""'"°'«'"'' '• ''"""l t» bo within t„olv, ^.ilt „7a S 

Mechanics, i\mi Labourkrs and SERVANTa, 

'.«., Jf ^"''Jiam farm labourers are reported pleutilul, but good female domestics -iro 

IZlif"" f u^ ""^"^^ """^"^'^"'^ ^"^^^ ^^-^S^^- ^ ^'"^il'^r report IS maTle of Zt umber 
a^nfl, where labourers command $140 a year, and domestic servants $48 a year There 
!iB hardly any demand for additional mechanics. ^ '^ 

Woollen and other FACTORres. 

ift., . '■''•It® '^ ^''^'■^'^ '™''"^° ^*''*°''^' ^* Cobourg, employing 120 hands-also car works 
!for building railway passenger and other cars, employing from 50 to 100 1^7 At 
.Harwood are two Krge naw mills, cutting about ten million feet of lumber annual^ 
The Cobourg and Marmora Eaih\ ay strikes Harwood. annually. 

Climate. 

"Dnrham and Northumberland both possess a healthy and invigorating climate ind 
are generally free from ague and other malarial diseases. ^S^^aung climate, and 

Water Powkk. 

rarr.'^^uf 'a ^^^f ^''"^ 7'**f P^^^^'' ^loug the Trent River, especially at Hastinfjs and 
.Campbe llford, where already there are two woollen mills and exi.usive griS miUs 
Montreal manufacturers are about starting a cotton mill at Campb.llford on aTZ; 
WredlfaS""' *'' ""''"'" "'"^ ^™^''°^' '^'""^ ^"'^ t'und.-ed^nd':e;en^'tJTr 

Tkttit Culture. 

Apple growing is carried on successfully in the Townshin of Hnldimnn^l wV.^^ ^ 
one farm of 800 acres. 20 acres have been devoted t^a S, pe^ TTlum S^ 
^Peaches are sometimes grown, but as a rule the trees rarely go beyond the WoomS^' 
PI; ms are more successful -the Damsons being th m<^st prolific an UhemostT^f 
quest, fetclung 32 per bu«hcl. Experiments are now being made wS 1 e EnS e h^^^^^^ 
Black Eagle cherries with good prospects. There are indications that grapf culture 
will shortly be profitably prosecuted. English goosoborrics succeed well ^Some of he 
Hadima^d farmers have clubbed together and purchased an apple- drying machine 
with a view to exporting dried apples to the North- West, where, it is expected Siey Wli 
command a remunerative price. At present the apple supply'in the county consider 
ably exceeds the local demand. At Newcastle and other points in Durham thrvtg" 
nurseries and large orchards exist. -^uiuaui uinving 

Horse Breeding. 

• ^ ^'2''^? breeding establishment exists in the Township of Baltimore mosflv fnr +v,n 
raising of Clydesdale draught horses. The owner commeLed op rSnsl It- and 

wV.l.lT« "^ '^''"rj' ^'''''^''' '^ '^r'^'''" ^"^'''^ ^« Philadelphia and New York 
where they are used for draying and other heavy work. »"" i^«w lorK, 



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03 



COUNTY OF ELGIN. 



Settlement. 

-^nn^^**^T^°l°''™?^°°^^ ''^ *^® Township of Ba:ham, in this county, about the year 
kc^l ^""nt^^l i '^°". ?f ^''' '''^'^^' ""^^^ ^^26, when the first settlers entered 
bouth Dorchester Four of the seven townships are now reported all settled : two to 
theextentof ninety nine per cent., and the remaining one "nearly all." The nrocesB 
seems to iiave occupied from thirty to seventy years. 

Ghabacter of thk Soil. 

The soil is principally clay, clay loam, and sandy loam. The clay loam and sandy 
oam varies m depth from ten inches to four feet, with clay and sand sub-soils— the 
former predominPting The proportion of swampy or springy land is very small. About 
one-half of the land cleared is styled fivst-class for agricultural purposes : about twenty- 
three i . .ent. second-class, and the remainder third-class. The general character of the 
soil m the county is good. Except in the Township of Aldborough, there is an entire 
absence of stony or rocky land not susceptible of profitable cultivation ; a very small pro- 
portion IS so hilly as to be objectionable, and most of the roUing land is available to the 
larmer. 

Water. 

1 uP-® '^^TK ■^' °" *^® 7^^}^' ^^^^ watered by springs, creeks and wells. Water can 
bo obtained by diggmg at depths varying from five to fifty feet, but generally at from 
fifteen to twenty-five feet. .» » o j 

Price of Farms. 

Firnt-class farms may be purchased at from ^50 to $60 per acre ; second-class, from 
to ^45 per acre ; and third-class from flO to $80 per acre. 

Stumps, eto. 

Most of the cleared land in the county is free from stumpa: the stumps remaininz 
are principally pine stumps. *" * 

Fences, 

About seventy.fiye per cent, of the farms in this county are reported under first- 
class fence consistmg mainly of elm, ash, cedar, oak and wire. Bail and board fences 
are generally used. In former years many farms were fenced with rails of black walnut. 

Farm Houses and Outbuildings. 

f,.„m^^"+l'*/'''°''-^f ''''^''/'°!' °i *^® ^^'^ buildings are of brick, stone, or first-class 
fiame : the remainder or twenty-five per cent., are of log or inferior frLme. About 

S d as Sferbr «^^tbu.ldmgs are reported first-class-the remainder are de- 



74 



Dbaiitaok. 

".cut and To»„«l,ip work^a IfdVorotb *"" ''"°"' """'"^ «<»»t™otod brOov* 

Fakm Maohinbht, kto. 
Aboo, ninety p„ „,„, „, «., ,„,„^,, „^^ .__^^^^^^^ ^^^ ___^^.__^^^^ 

Fertilizebs. 

meadow lands, wheat and corn. ^ ^'^^ *° ^^^ P^i^ds per acre, applied to 

Uncleared Lands. 
^ A^ont nine., pe. .n. o, ,U noola^ed Und. .„ .p„.ed sni«e ro. ™,«..«„. „ 

Acreage and Average Products 

the acre; „al»,llj per cent, and 40 bu.bZl'f'i''^'** P« ^™'- ""3 26 buehS to 
io butt Ci,T ■ "T- T "»' '°-^^^nt!>tbu:£VJi'' <''"'"^ ""■'■ K'-wtaboi? 

Capacity of the Land. 
<>>'^^^t^it:'^^Z:sf^Xt:tt..^^'' '»'='°^' ^""•" «-"i-. -0 drying. 

oTOCTC 



75 



TiMBEB Lands. 

About 80 per cent, of the land is timbered with most of the indigenous woods fiT«Pr,+ 
cedar. Wnite oak staves have been largely exported to QuZcTr thrWest SS 
trade, and as a quantity of white wood is stiU rvXX iwl . West India 
why the business o?exporLg pipe andrrrer.t:v'fa slJo^Stt lel^umeT " ""°" 

Mabkbt Facilitieb. 

c'oatforst TlomL and^l^^^^^^^^^ " '^"''^ °" ^""^ '^^^"^'^ imported-partiouTarlf 

Municipal Statistics. 

Exclusive of the Town of St. Thomas, the number of acres assessed is 4qR 099 ■ fl,n 
number of ratepayers assessed is 9,0G8. Assets: assessed value 7reai estatf S12 ^73 

SV S whfch Jt'lft i^^loT""^ * T^'i *°,*'^ .^^ $13,750,195.48. Liabilities $157,- 
4&B.U4, ot Which $128,000 comes under the head of county debentures In St ThnJ»\ 

Kt\n t^ ui • J^eai estate, $1,71&,160; assessed value of personal nroBertv «1.'51 . 
alI^2 0M32rn:ilf''''' ^"r' 'n^^''' ^19.168, o^ther asseC&OO-in 
So6-tS $154,600 ^o^P^-^^t^o" debentures. $142,100; other liabUities. $12,- 

Population, 

The population of Elgin, according to the census of 187 1 wna qo ooo q^ m, 
has now a poi^iUation of about 10,000. ' V ^- ^"^^ ^^^^^s 



Local Industries. 

This county has a large number of local industries, including seven grist and flouring 
mills, twelve steam and water saw mills, two sash factories, one barrel stave factory 
tliirty-six cheese factories, one corn meal mill, two wooUen factories, one pork packing 
Ijouse at Aylmer, one turning factory, one spoke and hub factory, one large agricultural 
implement factory, and several carriage and waggon factories. ShipbuUding is a 
growing industry at Port Burwell. The different railways and workshops give employ- 
ment to about 600 men. The foundries and machine shops at St. Thornas, three ' 
number, employ about 70 men, and do an estimated annual bu8iue«« of $120,000. 

Stock By-Laws. 

These exist and are generally operative— but impounding is seldom resorted 
except when damage is done. 

Climate. 

The climate of Elgin is mild and salubrious, and, owing to its southern locality and 
proximity to the lake, it is one of the most agreeable in Ontario. 



76 



Mechanics, Labourers and Servants. 

There is a limited demand for farm labourers in spring and harvest time at from 
$16 to $20 a month, and in winter at from $10 to $12 a month. Domestic servants are 
always in request at from $6 to $8 a month. Hardly any demand for mechanics. 
Good old country servanta can get permanent places in towns and villages. 

• 

Water FaiviLEaES. 

In the southern part of Elgin there are many excellent water-power privileges, some 
of which are utilized for the manufacture of lumber and flour. 



Fruit Culture. 

Apples, pears, peaches, cherries, strawberries, grapes, raspberries, gooseberries, 
plums and currants are the fruits grown in this county. Apples are very largely grown, 
principally the winter varieties. Plum culture is not profitable, and those grown are 
for home consumption. Poaches are profitably cultivated, but up to the present no 
attempt has been made to supply outside markets. The same remirk applies to grapes, 
which flourish well in the sandy soil of the county, and of which large quantities are 
grown. 

Communications. 

The Great Western Railway (Air Line branch), Canada Southern Eailway, and the 
London and Port Stanley, and Brantford and Port Bui'well Railways traverse the county. 



time at from 

servants are 

: meohaniosr 



nleges, some 



gooseberries, 
rgely grown, 
3 grown are 
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COUNTY OF ESSEX. 



^^"^ *^'«°o"nty settlemnntwaa commenced as earlv an i7nn «.• •!,,.« 
CanadiauB, which nationality is still 8tror3vTn.„\!fi * .'■ P"o°>Pa"y by French 
i.i East and West Sana^ich^ Sh^ ownsUaa^^^^^^^^^^ 
mont-the remainder are settled. ''""^"'^'^ " *" "P°'^'«'i ^a atiU under process of settle- 

Charagtxb or thk Soil. 
TLs general character of the soil is ann,^ Tf ««„ • a * ^, 
loam, with clay subsoil_in one or two toSins sandv Inar!'' *^' °^°'* P"^'' °' ^'•'*°'^ 
Band and, in some cases, a gravelly subsoU S dlt i°'^"^,P'^e^o^'"ates, with clay, 
to three feet, but generally ft is fro'm'teTve to rn^htet inch"' TCe^" ''''' T^? 
of marshy land in the Townships of Anderdon ami Tr.ii \ ,■ '^ * ^ood deal 

for cultivation, but which may^e rendeSultivabl« h! ' ""'"'^ '' f'* '^'^^" ""' ""^^^ 
There is no stony or hilly land irthrco,,nfv ,n • ^,f- P'^P^', 'y^*'^'^ ^^ drainage, 
bottom lauds, which are roportod to t in M?«^ ^ ''°"'^^' ""'^^ "'^^ exception of the 

tion of the soil is und^Sstlly improve '^nT^"?^^^^^ V^ P" '''"'■ "^^^ ""^"va- 
land is reported first-ckss for aSrurarZpLs aLu/ff' "'"*• "f *^^ °"'*^^'^'^'« 
and the remainder third-class. Purposes , about 12 per cent, second-class, 

Water 

well wa^:^d'V'pI^rrrsld^^^^^^^ ^"^ East Sandwich, the county is 

depth of from fou. to one hSed foet In son^ ." °T ^° ^^J'^^"^'^ '^^ ^^*^'oi"g at a 
surface water. In EochestS^Towns± artes 2 wpSr''''"^' ^'"f ""^^ "^"^ to^hofd the 
depth of one hundred feet ^°^^'^»P '''^^''^^ wells are bored through blue clay to a 

Prices op Farms. 
The price of farms varies according to tlie aualifv nf +T,o i.^a m • 

bush ,„d., 110 J,3o^pe, ac;\r;&nr;l^^Tt^^^^^^ 

Stumps. 
.l4'aS'jwLroVEs' ex.' "^ """"""^ ""^ " °'»« »' »"»?■■ T^ere are no pi„a 

Farm Dwellings and Outbuildivop 
About 41 per cent, of the farm houses are of brick ston« nr fi«f i / 
remamder are of log or inferior fr ■ . \hn,d on ' !' O'l first-class frame— the 
reported first-class; Le remainder Le 1 ne! ^ ^'' °"'^' °^ ^" outbuildings ui-o 

reporT^S bee^ "etrv^'a^rth^" r'^^^^^^^^^^^ T°-?^P ^^ <^osfield. No 

acres have been under-drained Bnf ?E« n f • A''^ -^'^^^ ^^® "'^^- ^^^ <^«sfiel ' : ,000 
wet lands, has done wondislor Issex SndTfr 'HT ^°*'/°' *^« ^^^^'^'^^^ ^^ ^i 
brought into cultivation, and are to-S; vS" I m f^ousands of acres have been 
till recently, all but worthless ^ ^ ^""^ * profitable return from land that was. 

Farm Machinery. 
liiachiues desu-abie. ' "' s-i-inps to render tm employment of 



91 



■^KTinciAi, Fkrtilizebs. 

Uncleared Lands. 
before being brought under hllago! ^ "'' """''^'^"'^ ^"""^ ^'^'^^^ ^''^e to be drained 

AVEIIAOB AOBBAOK UnDER Cnopg. 

ou an average, 2l) busLot to th fc o sp ^7 wheS 'Zuf .'n''^" "'T *' f ""^'i y''^^''^^' 
to tho acre; barley, about 6 i)er cent inS S h,TS ' , u ^ P°^ ''''"*• '^"^ 1" ^««l»el8 
cent, and 36 M.hlis to the acJe ; rye ?vl litt e ™^ '^u TT ', 'f ^' ,'^'^'^"* ^^^ P«' 
(very little grown). 18 bushels to^raci^^corn faTal^n^^ ^^'^ ""'''' P«*« 

in some oasos a yield of sevonty-fivo hnll n'la of ^LTi F '^°"*- ""'^ ^^* ^"«'-- *» ^l'^ acre 
buckwheat (very little grown) 20 buHh^^^^^^^ ""'" ^f ' ''"'■° ^^"^ ^^'^^'^ "'^^'^•"^'^^) ? 

bushels to tie acre ; turSpI^LylSfg own) fLm 40=0^ f'^f ^''"*- ""^^ ^^d 

hay, about 13 per cent, and U tons er tcT AhZ^ 12 *" ^^? ^"' "^'« ^^ ^^' »^°^« I 
(partly bush), and to orchards l^ lev S' 'tobacco flf/ T'' " ^'""^'^'^ ^'^ l'^'*^"^^ 
g mm are grown to a limited extent.^ Tr lir plus of wl^^^^^^ ^'^'' ^'^'^ «or- 

the past three years has averaged annually 5oXo bi^^^^^ S^T' "/^" ««?»ty during 
»;ut 100,000 bushels are annually si n S fo Tuf^i -u- !!"* """"^ ''^'^'i '« exported, 

is used in feeding hogs! Sk pacZf slr^^ fl,l within he county; the rem'ainde; 
the net income anuuSly amount to aboutTwo 000 T^'"'?^'. enterprise, inasmuch as 
of pounds of pork were'^exported fxtftho ^tf^^^^^^^^^ Btated that over two millions 

Stock. 

old country farmers have recently ett' "til f '^ ^V^^ °°"''^"" ^^'"'^- ^^ome 
introduced fine stallions and mCs t^tl^^ C^^^^^^^^ 

number of horses have been slipped thilvpnrJfM T^ P^rcheron breeds. A large 
farm work and heavy draught pSses S- ? ^^^'^'^^f "^ ^^^ the United States for 
Bively raised in tho count^ f LnrLm wor^M? t^ tifn "^^ 7> ^r'"'"'' ^^^l^' 
§130 to SUO. Ill New York anH ^t\ ? ' ^ • • *° ^^^^ ' ^^^ ^^^ ^^eavy draught. 

demand. "^ About 2,200 W oi horned tS'Z'':''''' ^^i'^/r ^°"^^ ^''''^^^y' ^^ 
distillery at Walkerville and exported to Fni T^'lf^ f^d m connection with the 
Croat Western and Grand Tranl?EaW« fn A? "? , ^V'" ?"^' ^'^ ''""^ ^^ ^^^ 
ship for conveyance acros the A hnt^^Th! ^^^'^"^^^1' ^¥^'« W are placed on board 
Galloway grades, the <^o^ ^^in^^^SX^l^^^^ ^^ 

Capacity of the Land. 

.qually adapted .o..„°„trai4,8«tg^„Y;;;rd4r^: ""'' "'""'• ^"^ '»» " 

Timber Lands. 

Mil, elm, hickory, b«s3, aycamorrand olU™ J ? * °'" '-'"S "li^'ewood (tulip), oak, 

•nnga ^uto the couutv every vear ovpi- imlP n ^,mi- '^ r'l";, "juaatry, ic is saia, 

to large numbers of workmeVteinT hrlinteT in^fl^""^ '' ""f f'f employment 

uy iJie winter— m fact, to the extent of leaving uoflQ 



I 



92 



unemployed. Charcoal burning is also a newly developed industry, which must heln M 
dimmish the area of uncleared land. There ar(^ ih^rt^ oho.nZ{ A • ^, ^^^ *° 

Other Local Industries. 
The female descendants of the early French settlprs in tliio «/«,«^„ l • 

the braiding of straw hats and in the knittii^^ of wool en sock tt S •''?'''•''' 
are estimated to produce about $95 000 inuallv thp oZ nf i^ f ' ^T'' ''''^''^^P^.^ 
stated, paid the F ench Canadian^Sen o?El'r$80 oSo V^^ yeti-tr'rw''bilid 
alone. The braid is a so exported to the East and ev!n to South America and Mel^co 
wliere it is made up into fashionable shapes and commands a real, sale !-AmanX' 
tory has been m operation at Walkerville, for the last two ?eartirthei;rodrt on of 
Glucose (grape sugar). Glucose is used in the brewing of lager b^e^and in the mnn„ 
facture of con ectionery. Combined with syrup of sofghum'^Tt wlu probably be Sn' 
s^^yely used in the production of molasses, a common grade of whTch is already madnT; 
Essex farmers exclusively from the sorghum The cultivntinn nflr^i.., , '^^^V ^^^^° *^y 
so successfully prosecuted that one fafm^is r^pSl'Strg^ 1^^^^^^^ 

ctSpSfallon" %l^Tf'^' f'"^* ''' ^'^^^^"^ 1- -- Th?s°is BoldatTbout 50 
^.ch mil probably be the mem, of mainlaiuing the supply of fish and nitn.i 

Eri.; ;,„i':ai;e°:i7;o'°o1,o''Ve^*"'^ ^■;^ ^' r 

i. beginnLTL autcVaSrara^ta™^ 

way, the experiment is pronounced to be entkely saeoesAl " " "^ "" '" " ™'"' 

Fruit Cultuke. 

from rl^^t' Sf .^' • '■"''■'''"-''r''^-''r '»- "> fifteen buThehttogTaken 

Population. 
The population of Essex, according to the census of 1871, was 82,007. 

Municipal Statistics. 

Number of assessed acres, 424,853 : ratepayers asspsqpf^ 4«;o ' „+ j 

value of i-pnl PRfp'o «i7 lonpi^A '^^^vuym, asscssea, u,452. i_ _,ets: assessed 

^4 Arrears of t^f^iii 001 ' ^.f'''''^^ Property, $458,724; taxable income, $70,- 
totheSwTnfwTL^: V^^'-^*^'"'' ^««^ts, ig247,0G3 (including <ji224,500 set down 
to me lown of Wnadsor)— forming a grand total of $7, -^'32,276. Liabilities • cornovn 
tion debentures, $841,589 (including $258,700 set do ,n o the Towrof wLd or? • 
interest overdue, $1,474 ; other liabiUties, $45,719-in all, $388,782 ^ ' 

Markkt Facilities. 
\v ?^^ n.^"^?,^* facilities of Essex are reported to be generally good Amherstb.irrr 

Mechanics, Labourers and Servants. 

Bpring. summer and autumn, ^o report as to mechanics and domestic servauta. 

Stock By-Law. 
Stock i3y-laws exist, but they are only partially enforced. 



liich must help to 
ns in the county, 
the United States 



ity are experts in 
3se two industries 
roit having, it is 
I' for straw braid 
rica and Mexico, 
tie. — A manufac- 
tho production of 
nd in the manu- 
robably be exten- 
already made by 
has already been 
5ve or six acres, 
sold at about 50 
d, and hopes arc 
je scale. — A not 
bat of the fishery 
itchery at Sand- 
mi, perhaps, of 
in these waters 
utifio principles, 
id on in a small 



!^\ 



grows to perfec- 
trees, known to 
hels being taken 
id certain crop. 
i pay well when 



[)7. 



.jets: assessed 

income, $70,- 

4,500 set down 

lities : corpora- 

i of Windsor) ; 



Amherstburg, 

Boutliern and 

veral shipping 



the farms in 
irvanta. 



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107 



COUNTY OF FRONTENAC. 



m 



Settlement. 

I.Und were opened and since then', l^^^'e^:S&C^sT^Jl^''%t\L^Z'' 
teen townships, only four are reported to be whollv settw .it . w i, ? , . 
Rtornugton. Pittsburg, and KingstoS. The X^t^^IZZ LY^'^ m^^^. 

Character of the Soil. 

The general character of the soil is variable, but in most of the townships a li^hf 
sandy loam predominates In others, heavy clay and gravel are foundSerspersed 4h 

arge rock formations and numerous lakelets. Largi tracts in BeSord aS Hi"ch^n 
brooke are reported to be unfit for settlement, and a similar remark applTes to some othT; 
townships Black loam is found in the proportion of about one-fifth iSme townSiips 1J 
vanes lu depth, but is generally shallow-the limestone rook in m&nvcf^J7n^ir^Ei' 

he surface. Over 244 000 acres are reported to be too ston^! S to W rock tof S 
the surface to be profitably cultivated, while the proportion of rolling but cuWvS 
land m.y be set down as about a third of the cleared acreage. olZ^tothTr^nl 

lt.'R "'"""^F- '^^Yi'ii i« difficult to arrive at more than aT^proximateSti 
mate of the proportions of bottom, swampy, wet, or sprinev lauds hnf if i« „it ?i I 

nearly all coming within the latter descrf/tions 'are Sflll by dralge tnd tLl 
ahnost the only msuperable difficulties from which the farmers of SonteTac labour ar. 
found in the superabundance cf rocks and lakes, which cover a iTrge portion of th« 
county. Oi the acreage pronounced fit for agricultural purnosGR \SMZtT . 

is^considered ".Bt-class. about thirty per ccS. .etl^r and tfrperS^^^^^^^^ 

Water. 

The county is exceptionally well watered by lakes, springs, creeks and wolN 
Water can be obtamed by digging to a depth of from four to one hundred feet aTner 
aUy, however, it can be obtamed from springs but a few feot below the sS.' 

Price of Farms. 

«l fJ' ft^^n "" ^"^^^t^^J^o afe purchasable, in the more remote townships at from 
mJfhnJif P V"' ^v. ^" ''"'^ *^^ character of the soil and the form houses and 
totsttTac"^''"'"' '"°" "" *'' '""* *"^""''^^' *^« prices 'range fS $20 

Stumps. 

The cultivable land may be considered tolerably weU eleared of siumn^ hnf nf tu^ 
s .imps remaining, pine stumps preponderate in some of the townsML i^S« intf ^* 
that of Howe Island, to the extent of seven-eighthT. *°'«^^8lnps-m one mstance. 






108 



Fences. 
•ipally^TUrrnd'S/raUr*" °^*^' ^'°°'' *'" ''^°'^''^ first-class, and conBist prin- 

Farm Houses ajto Outbuildinos. 

Drainaob. 
tow.S;^n,f(|;;gS)'"„d™'SL*^^ T"- >■- '«» ™a « on. 

Ti» I--l.ip.fpftaJclp^^rsi;-'-^-/J,- ^^^^ "•" -p%^ 

Farm Machinery. 

rocky character of the ground. ''^^" introduced, probally owmg to the 

ARTinciAL Fertiuzkrs. 

Stomngtoa. superphosphates hav'e been .ZlsMjSUuS' °°'' *" ^'""''"* ""^ 

Uncleared Lands. 

water b, the Napanee River, wouH'^'JSft l^^EK'^rlScStr"' 

Acreage and Average Products. 

voted to cereals, roots, grain, pasture SoriprT. ^^^^''^^^^^V returns, the area de- 
can only be approximLtdy e tCted. 1 slu pronortion of^r^'l^'*^; ^^^ *^« P^^^^^^^s 
to fall and spring wheat, rye. corn and bi^kwLnl S.°^*^^°"'*'''**^'^ ^a°d is devoted 

spring 10; ?ye,'l3; cornflCKuclwttriS b'^St S'^? ^^"* i^ V'^^^^^ = 
oats, which are more extensively grown, yield respectivelv IS l?o, T^'u ?^'^^^ *°^ 
peas, 13; potatoes, 75; turnips, 165; otherScrons ToOb.i!,]^ /»?"'^.?' ?" *"«J 
of a ton per acre. A very considerable norHnn of thf^i ^'^^J^J .a^^^ ^ay, three-fourths 
iB under'pasture, but Utlfiri^t voted ^o^J^^^^^^^^ 

ton, where 2.000 acres, or about one-ninToffS^^^ of Storring- 

<!uiture. — — .re« avicagc, is »ppropri»ted to apple 



109 



md consist prin- 



brick, stone, or 
teen per cent of 



n used in one 
)een employed. 



Capaoitt op the Land. 

Frontenao ie best adapted to stock raising and grain growing. Sheep are the moai 
profitable stock, and barley, oats, and rye, are the crops yielding the largest returns. 

Stock. 

Very little thoroughbred or imported stock has been introduced. The common breed» 
i)repondox^te-but Durham Devou. and Ayrshire grades: Cotswold and Leicester sheen 
and Berkshire and Suffolk hogs, are found in some townships. ThrtownSs e,S' 
15,717 horned cattle, 6,387 horses, 16,158 sheep, and 4,020 hogs ^^'''''^'^'' '"'*^^" 

Timber Lands. 
maple. principaUy used for lumber. f^ncSJ. and fuel ' tamarack, ceaar. and. 



id tgrieultnral 
f owing to the 



Market Facilities and Communioatk 



ONS. 



Thanks, mainly to the Kingston and Pembroke Eailwav Pr««t»«.- u 
to inside markets. Some townshins natroniyfiSf? v " ' ^^<^^*«"^o has easy access- 
interior roads are tolerablHoS^ ExceC shSn?^^^^^ The 
Kingston, and by the GranJTrunk rSJ' east ^^^e/r "^''' "' '^^ ^''' '^ 



5tive farming. 
Pittsburg and 



ible for culti- 
covered with 
cultivation. 



ileared acres 
the area de- 
;he products 
td is devoted 
1 6 bushels ; 
Barley and 
lis per acre ; 
iree- fourths 
)f bush land 
>f Storring- 
ted to appJe 



Local Industries. 

Frontenac has six cheese factories two woollfin mUU ♦^^ * 
water-power saw and shingle mill, four o-'risTmUls onfl ^5r - f *.^*'° f*"" "'^«' o^» 
factories, four shmgle miUs onBiran\^MZi' I ^a^'age factory, two pianoforte 

mills, sash and doTLToSs. SXudTht ffcS^ bToom"? ^"''^1 ^''^'' P^*°^^ 
yards, and hme kilns. No creameries ShTp bSSis aX 1°"''' *T'"''' ^"«>^- 
Lsland, opposite Kingston. ^ i^uUding is extensively carried on at Garden. 

Population. 

Municipal Statistics. 

taxable income, $18.76:^; arrears of W SssVat'. Pf^"^ P^^P^^^ $355,064 
makmg a grand total of $6 907 180 43 T ,-«.bnifif ?. ' °*^^'' *'^^*^' !$15.011.46-! 
mterest overdue, $2,370 roSuamtiesl^^^^^^ !?2,820; 

rev.na. for all purjoses, a'nd from al ttceslmount^^^^ .^^' *^*^^ 

Kingston the total number of acres assessed Tl 68ft «n! f^' ?V'?- ^H *^' ^'^^ ^^ 
payers assessed is 4.fil7 Aoo.*„. „„* . , \^ ^'^°^' ^^ tbe total number of r&U. 



il, 



110 



199,226; other assets, $273,699— making a total of %li 71 K aoo r ■ u-rr r. 

tion debentures, $448,566; interest overdue $11 7l9*;fl; '? ?"i-*^'*^i^'''^'= Corpora- 

f 618,563. '"*"''""' °^®^''"®> 'Pil'712; other liabilities, $63,285— in alJ, 

Stock By-Laws. 

than^ptlLntenLtef ' The^^j^!' r'^\^'^^''^^' ^"^ '^'^ °^°°°t ''e «aid to be more 
hogs. ?heep/Lserand Pou^tr^. ^''^ ^ *^^ "'^^' *' ^"*'^^ '^"^ ^"'^^ ^'^^l'' 

Mechanics, Fabm Laboubers and Servants. 




bilities: Corpora- 
$03,285— in aU, 



e said to be more 
nd entire stoek, 



amand $16 per 




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128 



COUNTY OF GREY. 



Settlement. 

Besides being one of tlie largest, Grey is one of tlio voungest counties in Ontario, 
liie lirst settlers entered the Township of St. Vincent in \s3d. From that date new 
t >wnships started into existence until, in 18;57,the last— thatof Sarawak— was entered, and 
It IS reported to have been completely settled in ten voars. In eight of the seventeen 
townships, the land is all taken up— in the remainder, eighty-two per cent, is occupied. In 
the settled town.slnps, an average of twenty years elapsed from tha entrance of the first 
settlers until the completion of the process of settlement. 

Character of the Soil. 

The soil is generally good, but diversified — clay loam, and gravelly loam predom- 
inating. Some of the townyhips are stony, and the extreme northern ones are some- 
what broken by limestone rocks. In Sarawak, fully one-third of the area is taken up by 
limestone rocks, Avhich roftch, sometimes, an altitude of one hundred feet. CoUingwood 
reports :20 per cent, of its suruce too stony to be prolitably cultivated; Keppel, 60 per 
cent.; Sullivan and Sydenliam, 83 per cent. About 11 per cent, of the cleared acreugo 
consists of heavy clay; 38 per cent, of olay loam; 12 per cent, sandy loam, and tlie remainder, 
gravelly and black loam and sand— the former predominating. The heavy clay has an 
average de])th of about 18 inches; clay loam about lo inches, and sandy loam about 1(3 
inches. A])out GO per cent, of the cleared land is rolling and cultivable. The propor- 
tion of bottom lands is inappreciable, but a large per centage is swampy. About 17 per 
cent, of the cleared land is reported lirst-olass for agricuU-->al purposes ; 3« per cent) 
second-class; and the remainder third-class, except one-eig;.:li of the acreage in the 
Township of Osprey pronounced "worthless," and one-third in Sydenham "not consid- 
ered fit Tor cultivation." 

Water. 

_ The whole county is well watered by springs, creeks, and wells, except the Town- 
ship of Proton, which has neither springs, nor creeks, but which obtains water easily, by 
diggmg, at a depth vai-ying from live to one hundi-ed feet. 

PitlCE OF F.UiMS. 

The^bighesfc quotation for first-class farms is S50 ; second-class, $35 ; and tliird- 
class, $25 per acre. In this, as in other counties, prices necessarily vary in accordance 
with the quality of the land, and tl"^ character of the outbaildings. 

Stumps. 

A little over thirty-three per cent, of the entire clear acreage is reported free from 
stumps. Of the stui; ps remaining, hardly any are pine. 

Fences. 

About tv jov-eight per cent, of the farms in the countt' are renorted to be undo? 
first-class fences — consisting principally of cedar rails. 



m 



LZV 



<a in Ontario. 
lat date new 
I entered, and 
10 Boventeen 
ucupied. In 
3 of the first 



lam predom- 
s are Konie- 
taken up by 
CoUiugwood 
ppel, 60 per 
ired acreage 
e remainder, 
clay has an 
iiu about 1(3 
i'lio propor- 
-boiit 17 per 
!d per cent) 
sage in the 
not consid- 



; the Town- 
er easily, by 



and tliird- 
accordanoe 



d free from 



io be under 



Fabm Houses and Outbuildings. 

About twenty-two per cent, of the farm houses arc first class brick, etone, or frame • 
the remainder are of log, or inferior frame. Of the outbuildings about tbirt; per cSit: 
are first-class— the remainder inferior. ^ ^ 

DBAINAaE. 

Very little draining has been done in this county, and in only one township rSyden. 
ham), does tile appear to have been employed, even to a small extent. ^ 

Fabm Machinery. 
About thirty-thi-ee per cent, of the farmers use improved machinery. 

Fertilizers. 

Salt and plaster have been employed to a very limited erteni, in some of the town. 
ships on wheat, roots, and clover. 

Uncleared Lands. 

About fifty-seven per cent, of the uncleared land in the county would be suitable 
for cul ivation, if cleared. In two of the townships, Keppel and Sarawak, however, the 
proportion is very small, owing to the rocky character of the surface. 

Acreage and Average Products. 

The township acreage of Grey is given as 1,171 .050; the cleared acreage as 562,004. Of 
the lat er about 9 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, which yields, on" an average, about 
1. bushes per acre ; spnng wheat 20 per cent, and 12 bushels ; barley, 6 per cek and 
22 bushels; oats, lo per cent, and 31 bushels; rye (hardly anv grown), 20 bushels- 
peas, 11 per cent, and 20 bushels; corn and buckwheat (hardly"' any grown)- tuminV 
H per cent, and 435 bushels ; other roots (hardly any grown_no averf^e g^i^^ThL 
17 per cent ar U tons per acre. About 17 per cent, is devoted to pasturage, and 1 
per cent to c ciiards. The chief products are grain and stock, and the sod is best 
ii'iapted to stock raising and dairying. 

Stock. 

07.767 homed came, 2I,(il8 horse,. H.fil^i^hrp „„/?5 CT4 hig, *''" '""""'' ' 

Timber Lands. 

V.rv^^fT'^ tbirty-four per cent, of the land is still timbered, principaU with hardwoods 
Very httle pine exists, and only sufficient cedar for fencing purposes t^^dwoods. 

Market Facilities. 
HudMeaford. ^^'°^ *^' important shipping ports of Owen Sound 



i.^ 



'i-;i 





130 



Local iNnrsTRiES. 

There are few local industries in the county, and none which may be said to pro- 
vide a market for agricultural products. In addition to grist aii'l flouring mills, there 
are nine saw mills, and two woollen mills, in the Township of Collingwood, a cheese 
factory in Egremont, a woollen factory in Glenelg, a cheese factory in Sydenham, and a 
cheese factory and a creamery in Normanby. 

Population. 
The population of Grey, according tc the census oi 1871, was u9,395. 

Municipal Statistics. 

Number of acres assessed, 1,0G2.681 : number of ratepayers assessed, 15,514. 
Assets: assessed value of real estate, $11,142,114.50; personal property, i3;i,141,101 • 
ta .'.able, S56,049 ; arrears of taxes, g)64,034.93 ; other assets, $45,006.21— forming a 
grand total of $12,448,305.64. Liabilities : Corporation debentiures, $688,096.67 ; other 
liabilities, $32,516.79— in all, $720,613.46. 



FiiuiT Culture. 

Fruit growing is extensively carried on, along the shores of the Georgian Bay 
Peaches, pears and grapes do well, but plums are grown in very large quantities, and 
they aro famed for quality and flavour. Large quantities of winter apples are shinped 
yearly— at least one-half of the quantity grown is thus disposed of. The price fetched 
IS from $1.50 to $1.75 per barrel. Apple and plum orchards are being increased every 
year, and there is every prospect of the shore townships of Grey becoming a great fruit 
growing region. 

Mechanics, Farm Labourers and Domestic Servants. 

There is no demand for mechanics, and but a limited one for agricultural labourers, 
but domestic servants are in request and command good wages. 

Stock Lvws. 

These exist, but they are seldom enforced. One report says they are "treated with 
the utmost contempt, and will continue to be so treated while redress can only be 
obtained by neighbour and friend prosecuting neighbour and friend." 



)e said to pro- 
g mills, there 
3od, a cheese 
enham, and a 







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COUNTY OF HALDIMAND. 



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StTTLEME.NT, 

A.eSX:S;??76 ' Altb^rlel f ""^-^^ '''' «-"*■- ^ *^e year of the 
county cannot bo said to have rapKllo untH ^J; "!«.7 ^^""^^"'^^y °«^"Pi^^l be 
the Six Nation Indians in 1798 Srid to the rrni ^Vrl ^¥° ^^' ^^"^ ''^'rved to 
gn:* accession of settlers, and at t?o ,-, Inf v. : ^^*'' ^^'"' *^^ county had a 

may Le s.d to he all settlWJih^e\t°cirh\":inT^^^^^^^ at^t^S ^-f ^^^ 

Chakacteh of tue Soil, 

sand^ni t:;;^£^^s2^^t^i::;j^::j^^ S S^^^*- -^^?^^ - ^^- -^^ 

!oam-the latter township\o the Stex t of fiteei ±- ce'nt ' T'^^^'i "' '^^^^ ^^ "^^^^ 
are the predominating soils in the county which Z „ ' .F'^'f^ ''^''•>'' '^"^ «^'V loam, 
one the finest in the Dominion. A ve^v s x \!rlS"'""^ n^ ^''T'''' '' ^^Po^^ed 
0.- Inlly, for profitable cultivation • nearly a 1 i^vnS "" °/ "^? ?"^'^'^°^ ^« to« «tony, 
ands. particularly in the Township of Seneca Z s^o ff /!"l '"/""";'^^- '^'^'^ 1^°"°^ 
.. no wet or springy land, while the swa^ s ^re of'Z nlnf Y'^ '" ^^'' ''°""*>'- ^l^^re 
of Moulton, whore the proportion is giTen as one third 7hZ\T'f '^ *^° ^"^'^^^"'^l^iP 
land IS reported first-class for agricultuiar t)un.nt« f] f ^*^*^''^^' P*^^ '^""t- of the 
and the remainder third-class. ° '"''"'"^ purposes, thirty-two per cent, second-class, 

vVater. 

tion5^l:^'?(;^^^ir7?!!?;r2^^^^ the e^ .p. 

of from ten to thirty feet, but inSe c^ise wells nt "^'T''^ ^^ '^^S^'""' '^t ^ --pS^ 
feet. The front of Eaiuham is boTded bv rTl 1 if '""^.f ^'"P *« one hundred 
whole length of Seneca. ^ ^'^'^ ^"'' ^"^ ^he Grand Eiver runs the 

Peice op Farms. 

Stuitps, 
Most of Ibe cleared land is ftoe from stum,,,, and ff^ „f tb, -,,„„ 



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WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

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Fences. 

About <!eventy-five per cent, of tbe farms are reported, under first-class fence, cor 
eiBting of cak, ash, or basswood rails, boards and pine stumps. 



Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About sixty per cent, of the farm bouses are reported to be of bi-ick, stone, or first 
class frame ; the remainder are of log, or inferior frame. Of the outbuildings six1{)C fiv 
per cent, may be termed first-class ; tbe remainder are inferior. 

Dbainaoe 

Very little draining has been done, except in tbe Townships of Moulton and Oneida. 
In the former 500 acres have been underdraiued with tile. 

Farm Machinery. 
About ninety- two per cent, of the farmers use improved labour-saving machineg. 

Fertilizers. 

Plaster, salt, and lime, are used to some extent, and there are indications that they 
will be commonly employed in the near future. Salt is used on grasses, grains, and 
roots, and plaster on corn, roots, clover, and meadow lands. The proximity of tbe 
white gypsum beds of Cayuga is of immense adrantage to the farmers of Haldimand, 
inasmuch as the cost of transit of this important requisite to high farming is reduced to 
a minimum. 

Uncleared Lands. 
Nearly all the uncleared land in the county is reported fit for cultivation, if cleared. 



Acreage and Average Products. 

The towoshln acreage of Haldimand is 270,59(3^; the cleared acreage is 183,418. 
Of the latter about 10 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, which yields, on an average, 17 
bushels to the acre; spring wheat (very little grown), 12 bushels per acre; barley, G 
per cent, and 23 bushels ; oats, 10 per cent, and 35 bushels ; rye (very little grown), 
15 bushels ; peas, 6 per cent, and 18 bushels ; corn, 2i per cent, and 38 bushels ; buck- 
wheat (hardly any grown), average given by two townships only — Cauboro' 40 bushels, 
and Moulton 15 bushels; potatoes, about 1 per cent, and 120 bushels ; turnips (very 
little grown), 250 bushels ; other root crops (very few grown) j sugar beets and mangolds, 
1,000 bushels ; hay, 21 per cent, and IJ tons i er acre. Pasturage takes up 20 per cem. 
of tbe acreage, and about 3 per cent, is devoted to orchards. These figures are approx- 
imate only — t)ie Township of Dunn not having made a return of the acreage under cul 
tivation for thu different crops. 

Capacity of tub Land. 
Ealdimand is equally adapted for grain growing, stock raismg, and dairying. 



141) 



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The townships sustain 13,928 horned cattle, 8 230 iiorseq 99 lift »!,««« i 
7,860 hogs. Draught and general purpose horses 'are most in r^ques "' Grade .attl2 

Timber Lands. 

About twenty-four per cent, of the acreage is still timbered— princinallv wiH, linr^ 
^ood, used for fuel, fencing, and buUding purposes. principally with hard- 



ion and Oneida. 



Market Facilities. 

Haldimand Las excellent markets, and, in addition to gravel and macadamized rofld« 
the county possesses exceptionally good railway communication SSTiunk 
Great Western, Canada Southern nml VamWinn «r,A - ^.fu w i J-^io vxrana iiunk, 
the entire county to the extent SdghtyfivTm^^^^ 'f '''''' 

business is carried on at Port MaitlL/ SalX ia Hao^rsvine r„v ]„! .-'^"P^'"? 
Dunnville. are the principal markets, but a ^oJrdefl'S Tus^^s^ s Sne atT^^^^^^^ 
outside the coun y_notab ly at Ports Dover and Colborne. ThrGrand EWer is navi '1 
able to Cayuga, twenty miles from its mouth. naviga- 



LOCAL IXDUSTKIES. 

The county has four flouring mills (one steam), three saw mills, one shincle factorv 
one planing mill, one sash and door factory, five poster mills ei-ht cheLefectories fi7« 
woollen factories, one agricultural implement factory, a foundry and maS^sho^s a 
carnage faocjry, and a freestone quarry. ^ maciime sliops, a 



;ion, if cleared. 



Population. 

The population of Haldimand as now muuicinnllv r.nr>Qfif„f„;i 
census of 1871, 24.851. mumcipally constituted, was, accordmg to the 



Municipal Statistics. 

«.sesSf2:'o?riSri''.i:,1^i .^, -f -tepayersassessed, " OU. Assets: 
^22,770 ; arrears of taSl%lO%t' oU^^^^^^ taxable income. 

!i;8,112C51. Liabihties: Co^JratL debentures ^H^fi^'^'i^'^^X^T^ l''^^ °^ 
in all, $138,226. The total rPVP..n« f,.,. „ii ' •*'^^^126 ; other liabihties, $100— 

1878. to §127,679. ^^' ''^ l^vposes, and from all sources, amounted, in 

Mechanics, Farm Labourers and Domestic Servants. 

board':trmmer"tV^^^^^^^^^^ ^o ^20 per month, with 

at $6 per month, kll the year i^und ' ^'"'"^' '"^^^^^ ""'^ ^^^^y^ i° demand, 



Stock Laws. 
These exist in the county, but they are vu-tuaUy a dead letter. 



I-!)-' 



150 



Wateb Power. 

The water power of the Grand Eiver has been utilized, to some extent, bv the con- 
ftruction oi dams at Caledonia, York, Deans, and Byng. There are also several dams 
across the smaller streams falling mto the Grand River and Lake Erie. 

GyPSUIv DiiPOSITS. 

Scattered along the banks of the Grand River are immense deposits of the purest 
white gypsum, capable apparently of supplying the wants of tJie ^ .uadian farmers for 
centuries to come. 

Scenery, Climate, etc. 

The scenery in many parts of the county is very beautiful, the land jeinr^ generallv 
undiUatmg, and intersected by numerous streams. The climate is mild, vet bmcin^ and 
m the summer season the shores of Lake Erie are a favourite resort for seekers°Lfter 
health and pleasure. 

Fruit Culture. 

All the fruits ordinarily grown in the Niagara District flourish in Haldimand, but it 
does not appear that fruit growing is yet prosecuted as an industry so exteusivdv as 
might be expected. j »" 



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164 



COUNTY OF HALIBURTON. 



Settlement. 



Settlement commenced iu the Townships of Lutterworth and Minden in 1858, and 
continued iu the others until, in 1872, the Towuship of Glamorgan was entered. 
From the latter date settlement has progressed, until at the present time about 39 per 
cent, of the cultivable area of the county may be considered settled. Several of the 
townships in the northern part of the county have not yet been incorporated for muni- 
cipal purposes. 

Chakacxer of the Soil. 

Sandy loam is the prevailing soil of Haliburton, the proportion being about 62 per 
cent. The remainder is praicipaiiy divisible between rocky and hilly lands not suscep- 
tible to profitable cultivation. The sandy loam is from 1 to 3 feet deep, with a subsoil 
of gravel and harJpan. About 60 per cent, of the area is rolling and cultivable ; 7 per 
cent, is swampy ; a small proportion is springy, and the balance too rocky or hilly for 
cultivation. About 11 per cent, of the land is reported to be first-class for agricultural 
purposes, 23i per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-elass. 

Water. 

Haliburton is watered by lakes, creeks, springs and wells. Well water can be 
obtained at depths varying from 3 to 40 feet. 

Price of Farms. 

The price of land in this county ranges from $1 to $15 per acre, but generally 
partially improved farms can be got for from $1.50 to $5. GO per acre. 

Stumps. 

Except in Dysart and Snowdou, whicli return, respectively, eleven and thirty-three 
per cent., a very small proportion of the cleared land of Haliburton is free from stumps. 
There are a good many pine stumps remaining, except in Anson, Hiudou and Stanhope. 



Fences. 

HaUburton is indifferently fenced, except in the township of Cardiff, where the 
materials generally used are logs off the fallow 



165 



f j| 



Fabm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

Hardly any of the farm houses of the county are first-class. Nearly all are lojt 
Hif'T ^T'u ^^ *^! outbuildh:g8. so far as can be gleaned from the rrorts^ 
nmeteen and one-half per cent, are superior and the remainder inferior. 



Drainage. 
No drainage appears, as yet, to have been effected in this county. 

Farm Machin^.ry. 

None of the farmers have, up to the present, introduced improved farm machinery, 
piobably because the nature of the ground and the c^uantity of stumps remainuig 
precluae the use of those appliances. * .^ r "^b 

Fertilizers. 
No artificial fertilizers have been used in this county. 

Ukclearsd Lands. 

Omitting Anson and Hindon, which make no return under this head, about thirty- 
five per cent, of the uncleared land in Hahburton would be suitable for cultivation if 

Cl6&X6Cl* 

Acreage and Average Products. 

The township area of Haliburton cannot be estimated owing to the incompleteness of 
some of the returns, but the cleared area is given as about 23,518 acres. For the same 
reason only a bare approximation can be given of the acreage devoted to cereals, roots, etc., 
and the yield thereof. Fall wheat is very little grown, and the yield in four townships 
averages 12^ bush, per acre ; spring wheat (a small percentage grown), 8il- bush • 
barley (very httle grown), 19 bush. ; oats, probably about 18 per cent, and 26 bush* ■ 
rye (hardly any grown), 15 bush.; peas, probably about 9 per cent, and 15 i bush* • 
corn (very little grown) 12^ bush. ; buckwheat (very little grown), 27+ bush. ; notatoes' 
about 1 per cent, and 167^ bush. ; turnips (very little grown), about 386 bush. • other 
root crops, none ; hay, probably about 25 per cent, and 1 ton per acre. The pasturase 
18 mostly uncleared land, and hardly any of thB cleared acreaye is devoted to orchanis 
iiiighteen acres in Stanhope are devoted to the growth of millet seed. The county is 
best adapted to stock raising and dairying, but improved breeds of cattle, horses and 
pigs have not, as yet, been introduced, owing to the lacL' of capital. 



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Stock. 

Native cattle, sheep and hogs preponderate. The Township of Dysart is the only 
one in the county which returns Berkshire hogs and Leicester sheep. The townships 
BUBtaiu 4,486 horned cattle, 596 horses, 2,052 sheep, and 971 hogs. 



Timber Land. 

About eighty per cent of the entire area is still under timber, consistine principally 
01 map;e, beech, birch. Hemlock, basswood, elm, ash, pine, tamarack and cedar : used 
tor lii'^ber, fencmg, railway ties, telegraph poles, shingles, bolts, sawlogs, etc 



166 



Mabket Facilities. 

The market facilities of tliia county are indifferent. Haliburton, Petrolia ar.^. Kin- 
mount are the principal villages for the sale of produce, but the lumbermen are, in this 
region, the priii'>ipal purchasers from the farmer. The roads in the county are 
indifferent, and the Victoria Railway only penetrates the Townships of Snowdou and 
Dysart, and terminates at Elaliburton Village. 

Local Industries. 

Lumbermg is about the only industry which provides a market for agricultural 
products. There is a cheese factory in the village of Miuden. 

Population. 

The population of the townships forming Haliburton cannot be correctly given, as 
many of them were not constituted when the last census was taken. 

Municipal Statistics. 

There are no returns showing the assessment, assets, liabilities and revenue of this 
county included in the official returns preseutfad to the Legislature for the year ending 



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178 



COUNTY OF HALTOIS. 



Settlement. 

Halton is wholly settled. The first settlers entered the Township of Nelson ia 
1804, Trafalgar about 1805, Esqnesing in 1H18, and Nassagaweya in 1820. The process 
of settlement was completed in the latter coimty in 1850— and, on an average, it took 
twenty-eight years to complete it. 

Characteh op the Soil. 

About fourteen per cent, of the soil consists of heavy clay, fifty-six per cent, of clay 
loam, sixteen per cent, sandy loam, and the remainder of black loam, gravel and saud. 
About nine per cent, (principally in Nassagaweya) is too stony or rocky to be profit- 
ably cultivated, and about four per cent, is so hilly as to '-'i objectionable for the pur- 
poses of cultivation. About sixty-nine per cent, in Esquesing, Nassagaweya, and Nelson, 
consists of cultivable rolling land. The quantity of bottom, swampy and springy laud, 
is inappreciable. For agi-icultural purposes fifty-two per cent, of the entire cleared 
acreage is reported first-class, twenty-five per cent, aecond-class, and the remainder 
thu'd-class. 



Wateb. 

The county is abundantly watered by springs, creeks, and wells, 
obtained by digging to a depth of from nine to forty feet. 



Water can be 



Price of Farms. 

In Trafalgar, first-class farms fetch from $G0 to $80 per acre— in the other town- 
ships from $40 to $G0 per acre ; second-class farms, in Trafalgar, from $30 to $00 per 
acre ; m the other townships $30 to $40 per acre ; thkd class, in all the townships, Irom 
$10 to $30 per acre. 

Stumps. 

About cighty-nve per cent, of the land is now clear of stumps. The stumps remain- 
ing are nearly all pine. 

Fences. 

About seventy-five per cent, of the farms are reported under first-class fence, con- 
sisting principally of cedar and pine rails, and wire. 



Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About seveuty-four per cent, of Ihc dwoUings are of brick, stone, or first-class frame : 
the remainder are of log, or inferior frame. About sixty-two per cent, of the outbuild- 
ings are first-class — the remainder inferior. 



179 



Drainaqb. 
p.. J*-^ draining has been resorted to to a Umited extent only. The TownshinB of 

fr^ToZ\7i^.:::;r''' ''*" ""^ '°" ^^^« ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ -s^^ b^ rS?/ 0/ 

Farm MACHtNEST. 
About eighty-six per cent, of the farmers use labour-saving machines. 



FXBTIUZEBS. 

wheafanAtr. "°^ '''^''^^''^^^'''' ^^^e been used, but not extensively, on spring 

Uncleared Lands. 
Uon wta'cle^S'"" "" °°""- "' ""■ '^"""^ '»°^ »" -P"« '"i""' for cdav- 

Acreage and Average Produots. 

clearS'*ST?Strjfpe°r^?^^^^ devtTtrfr'rV°S^^°^^-* '''''''- 
age, 21 bushels per acre- ?wine wheat aho„? « / ''^^*'' ^^i'^^ yields, on an aver- 

cent, and 27^ bu'sh.roatB, 9 pencil auf 84 bush ^ Z Vv'e^rv Hm'"^^'' ^lllf^'u^ ^'' 
peas. 6 per cent, and 20 bush.; corn iTer cent an'l Z'' hl^ lfl« sowu). IG^ bush.; 

stock raising, grain growing and dairying. ^ ^ ^ ^®" adapted for 

Stock. 

The SrU7a°rSra:rXVtf lor'^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

and grade ; sheep, Zeicostfrs 'anS Sw l|?C = Bihte^'s^fft" % '^^°'*^-°- 
There are also improved breeds of poultry Therf ^rfinl nw " ?^ ?"'^ Yorkshire, 
ing establishments in the county, by whofe aeencv a .1 ^^ n '° extensive horse breed- 
bred stock has been introduced. ^ ^ ^ considerable amount of thorough- 

TiMBEB Lands. 

ILVBKET FacilITISS. 

--aiit^, anuiinvu crossmgs at Milton and Gonrfrpff.w.1 i.«.-i — T"'- f7;'""j° int-uraect tna 
and macadamized roads The marke^a mn«?f ' \T^^^ ^^''''^' *^^^^^ ^^-^ good gravol 
town, Guolph, Hamilton and Tornto ^^^l^'^^ted are Milton, OakvUle, G^orgt 





















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180 



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Local iNJUsrsnes. 

Amon" the chief local industries are woollen and paper mills, and hydraulic, cement, 
and mineral paint worlcs. There are also the usual indusfries attendant upon an agricul- 
tural population. As yet, no cheese factories or creamt.ies have been atartert. 

Municipal Statistics. 

Total number ot acres assessed, 227,800; total number of ratepayers assessed, 
6,446. Assets : assessed value of real estate, )i>7,200,415 ; personal prpporty, $62o,48o 
i^xable income, $31,527; arrears of taxes, P0,5il; «tlxer^sB^^^-^«l:?0^-'!;^^^^;|,? 
grand total of !p7,9-18,271. Liabilities : Corporation debentures, $185,900 , other 
liabilities, $3,222-in all, $189,122. The total revenue for all purposes, and from aU 
sources, amounts to $132,599. 

POPULATIOS. 

The population of Halton, according to the census of 1871, was 22,G0G. 

FnmT Culture. 

Halton is celebrated for strawberry growing. From 100 to 150 acres in the neigh- 
bourhood of OakviUe, furnish strawberries, during the season, to the greater part of the 
Dominion. The industry is a prolltable one, but the limits of profitable production have 
probably been reached, unless, as has been suggested, canning, or preserving, is resorted 
to. The average crop of strawberriea per acre is from 75 to 100 bushels, and the 
wholesale price of the fruit irom 7 to 10 cents per quart. About 500,000 baskets 
are shipped from Oakville every season. Grape culture has also been developed at 
Oakville— the Concord, i»elaware, and Eogord' No. 1 and 15, lor table use, and the 
Clinton for wine. Twelve tons of grapes were grown, in 1879, on an acre and a half of 
land, and the grapes fetched, on an average, 4^- cents per pound. The cost of 
laying out a vineyai-d of one ucro is set down at $200. Apple and plum culture is 
also successfully prosecuted, but peaches do not succeed in this county, as a rule. The 
smaller fruits are generally grown for home consumption. 



Stock By-Laws. 



The stock by-laws of this county are reported partially operative, but there has been 



no case of a conviction before a magistrate 



Impounding is frequently resorted to. 




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COUNTY OF HASTINGS. 



Settlement. 

The first settlers— U. E. Loyalists— entered the front Township of Sidney al it 
the year 1781. Thurlow wa» eutei ;d in 1788, Huntiugdob in 1810, Tyendinaga in 
1818, Marmora in 1820, and Joe in 1822. The last townships opened were Carlow 
and Mayo, in 1805. Only * ,: townshipa- Sidney, Thurlow, and Tyendinaga— are 
reported "all settled." On an drage, only about lifty-two per cent of the land in the 
remaining townships has been i/ccupied. 

Ch.uiacter of the Soil. 

Sandy loam predominates, but clay, clay loam, and black sandy loam, are frequently 
met with. The average depth of sandy loam in some townships is two feet. The sub- 
soil is variable — sometimes quicksand, at others gravelly, hard pan, or rock. A consid- 
erable portion of the land is unfit for cultivation, particularly in the Township of Lake, 
which reports only 5,000 acres adapted to agricultural purposes, out of a total area of G8,1G0 
acres. Of the whole county about twenty-eight per cent, of the surface is too stony, or has 
rock too near the surface, to be profitably cultivated— the balance is made up of rolling, 
bottom, swampy, or springy lands and lakes. About twenty-six per cent, of the cleared 
land is reported first-class for agricultural purposes ; about thirty-seven per cent, 
second-class ; and the remainder third-class. These figures are necessarily approximate, 
as some of the township returns show averages which obviously include uncleared land, 
considered cultivable — and not, as contemplated by the questions, land actually cleared 
and cultivated. 

Wateb. 

The county is generally well watered by springs, creeks, and wells. Water can be 
obtained by digging at depths varying from four to twenty-five feet. There are, besides, 
numerous amall lakes, particularly in the northern section of the county. 

Fbice of Fabms. 

In some of the front t'^wnships first-class land is worth from $60 to $100 per acre, 
according to quality and location; second-class is quoted at from $10 to $50 per acre ; 
and thud from $1.50 to $20 per acre. Farms can be rented at from $1 to $4 per acre! 
In the rear townships there are some free grant lands. 

Stumps. 

There is a large proportion of land in this county still uncleared of stumps — very fevr 
of which are pine. 







i 



i 



190 



Fences. 

The fences are generally good, and the material employed is principally cedar, ash, 
and pine. 

Fabm Dwellings and Outbuildings. ^ 

There are very few stone or brick dwellings ; frame and log buildings precJominate, 
and of those nearly sixty per cent, are reported to be inferior. Of the outbuildings about 
thirty-seven per cent, are reported first-class ; the rcmamder are inferior. 

Drainage. 

Draining has not, as. yet, been extensively resorted to. Only in one township 
(Thurlow) does it appear that tile has been used, even to a very limited extent. Stone is 
generally used in uuderdraining. 

Fabu Machinery. 

_ In some townships farm machinery has not yet been introduced — in others, where 
agricultural conditions are favourable, thoy are largely used. Thus, while in Sidney, one 
hundred per cent, of the farmers use machines, in Carlow, Dungannon, and other town- 
ships, they are practically unknown. In other townships a commencement seems to- 
have been made. 

Fertilizers. 

Plaster and salt have been used, to a limited extent, in seven out of twenty-four 
townships — principally on roots, grain, and clover. 

Uncleared Lands. 

About fifty per cent, of the uncleared land is set down as fit for cultivation, when 
cleared. 




Acreage and Average Products. 

The total acreage of Hastings is 885,411 : the total cleared acreag- is 390,943. Of 
the latter an inconsiderable area is devoted to fall wheat, except in Madoc, where an 
area of 25,000 acres yields an average rf 15 bushels to the acre. It is impossible to 
arrive at even an approximate estimate of the proportions of tlie acreage devoted to the 
several cereals and roots from the returns rendered, hut a tolerable idcni may be formed 
of the average yield, which miiy be set down as follows: Fall wheat, 18 bushels per 
acre ; spring, 13 bush.; barley, 22 bush.; oats, 30 bush.; rye, 10 bush.; peas, 17 bush.; 
corn, 83 bush. ; buckwheat, 23 bush.; potatoes, 135 bush.; turnips, 200 busli.; other 
root crops, 200 bush.; hay, IJ- tons per acre. In some townships hardly any land is 
devoted to pasturage, the cattle remaining at largo in the bush ; in others the pro- 
portion is large— in the Townships of Huntingdon and Hnngorford to the extent of 
onc-tliird of the cleared acreage. In these townships cheese-making, for export, is 
extensively carried on— the Hastiu<,'s cheese factories having established quito a 
Europpiin reputation. In tlio front t(rvnshij)s. barley is a lar^c and profitable crop. 
Here, tlie average yield is not loss than forty bushels per acre^ and the (luality ranks 
A 1. with American maltsters. 



191 



Capacity op the Land. 
Hastings is, on the whole, best adapted for stock raising and dairvinj? but Pr«m 

s=o^ii:r«tKwXr '^ "°"" """^ °'^« towWsfz'if^it-o'c 

Stock. 

The common grades of cattle and horses are most extensivelv raised m flm n „nt„ 
Few thoroughbreds have as yet been introduced. The countv sustains S 4ft^ W ^^ 
cattle, 12,320 horses, 23,525 sheep, and 10,983 hogs The TowStoV 

b; the^t^L^orr^"" ^' ^"^"^^^' ^"' ^ ^^"^°^ *'^ numL^SX norbSXu 

Timber Lands, 

fnfifo^''^^^''f°P°''"? «^*^®^''''^'''°®^'^*'"°°^^^«^ ^^t^ timber-in some townshin* 
to the extent of seventy-five per cent. iuwiibmp» 



Market Facilixies. 

Some of the townships are badly off in this respect. Bangor is fortv-five 
miles removed from any market, and the farmer is mainly dependent °ou h mbSLen 
Carlow :s seventy-five miles from Madoc and Renfrew (in Renfrew Co.), and herralso 
the farmer has no market for his produce and depends on the shantymeL Of the othe? 
townships Madoc and Belleville are the market centres, and they are easily reached bv 
gravel roads, and by the Belleville and North Hastin-s Railway ^ ^ 



1 1\ 



Local Industries. 

_ Gold mining is very extensively carried on in Madoc and Marmora ; and iron min 
ing IS likely to have increased development. Cheese making is the most impoiSnt 
industry carried on m the county. The cheese export from th! Bay of Quinte T i 
to whic'i Hastings "> <^''" lo^™,,,.*- ««.,i„:t...i. — . -, , . •' mj^^uk^- >.iiouil,i, 

millions of pounds, 
in Eastern Ontario was 



ir i- • i.1 t '', ., — ^^i-v/iu ixuiu uuu iJiiy oi uuinte ciistnct. 

Hastings is he largest contributor, amounted, last season, to about eleven 



ihere are lorty-eight cheese factories in the county 
'as started in the Township of Sidney. 



The first in 



Population 



. , 7^*" P°P"^''\'°°, °f Hastings, exclusive of the City of Belleville, and the Township 
^l^l^^^l'^^^f^'^a^J^J^ return, is 32,036; that of Belleville. acconhngT 

In 1877 it amounted to 11,197. 



the returns of the Assesaor for 1880-1, was 9.987. 



W 



Stock By-Laws. 
"CfltH^vnrif /" "^""^ t'^^'^f ip. Wt they are practically useless. One report says, 



192 



Fruit Culture. 

A number of persons in this county have associated with others in the Bay of 
Quinte district and formed a Frujt Shipping Company, the objects of which are the care- 
ful picking, selecting, and packing of fruit, so as to compete in foreign markets with the 
be8,t fruit growers of the continent. Hastings has a large number of young orchards 
beginning to bear more fruit than is necessary for home consumption — hence the desira- 
bility of the organization. Apples and pears are successfully grown ; grapes do well on 
elavated land, and plums along the bay shore. Peaches are grown, but not to any 
extent. The best apples grown in the district command 22 shillings sterling per barrel in 
England, leaving the producer §3 per barrel, clear of all expenses. 




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f09 



COUNTY OF HUKON. 



n' a.^r ? " V^^ ommty, settlement having commenced as late as 1828 in the Townshin 
0. Godench. From that date settlement was rapid until, in 1854, the last townshipTTurS 
berry) was entered. Of the seventeen townships, fourteen may be saTd to be aU ietS 
the process having occupied, on an average, tweuty-three years. ' 

Character of the Soil. 

.o«* ^^?yj°''!° '^ ?^f preponderating soil in this county, averaging about fortveieht t,«r 
cent, of the cleared land. Sandy loan, averages about sixteen per cenrandU'cUlaJce 
consists of heavy clay, sand, gravelly and black loam. The subsoil consists JeLrSvnf 
c ay and gravel. Stony land prevaUs in the Township of Turnberrynhe other i^l^ 
slaps are comparatively free from either stony or rocky land. Abo"I fori per cent of 

int f'fi f'!'^ '"^"^?^. "°*^ ''^*^^"^^^- ^"^ agricultural purposes a£utthi;?ype' 
cent, is first-class, thu-ty-four per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-cS ^ 

Water 

The county is generaUy well watered by springs, creeks, and wells. Water oan U 
t^ZlyX'St'' '' ''''''' ^"^"^ '"""^ ^^ ^'^'^"^^y ^-*' »'"* general^at froTten' 

Price of Farms. 

First-class farms, with good dwellings and outbuildin£?q fflfeh frnm ««:n ^^ itan 
icre; second-class, from $80 to $45 pe? acre; Td Kd ckss^ fr^^ 
acre. Farms can be leased for five years at a rentaFof from $2 fo $3 ler Icr! 0^n« 
report says, " Taking into consideration the value of the land and the hi4 rate of in?«r 
est paid for money, farms are rented very low indeed." ° °^ "^-^^' 

Stumps. 

About fifty-two per cent, of the cleared acreage is free from stumns Of i]m <.f„m«a 
remaining a small per centage are pine. «« irom siumps. UUhe stumps 



Fences, 

The fences are generally good, and about twenty per cent, are firstolas, r«^o, 
ash, elm, and wire are used for fencing. ^ nrst-class. Cedar, 

14 



210 



Farm Dwellings and Outbuildinob. 

About thirty per cent, of the farm houses are reported to be of stone, brick, con- 
erete, or first-class frame; the remainder are of log, or inferior frame. About forty-two 
per cent, of the outbuildings are first-class, the remainder are inferior. 

DltAINAOB. 

*°^ A considerable amount of draining has been done in this county, but very little tile 
has been used. Hemlock, cedar, and stone are generally employed. "With thorough 
drainage the productive capacity of the coimty will be very Is'-gely iucrcssed, and 
there are indications that the farmers are alive to its importance. 

Farm Machinery. 

About seventy-three per cent, of the farmers use improved machinery for seeding 
•nd harvesting. 

Fertilizers. 

In s'jrae townships fifty, and in two townships (Hullett and Tuckersmith) eighty 
per cent, of the farmers use salt or plaster j in others thoy are not used at all, or by very 
few. Salt is very largely used for grain crops and roots. Of the whole county about 
thirty per cent, of the fai-mers use artificial fertilizers. 

Uncleared Lands. 

In most of the townships there is a large quantity of uncleared land, wnich, if 
cleared and drained, might be brought under cultivation. 

Acreage and Average Products. 

The township acreage of Huron is given as 795.829; the cleared acreage as 440,338. 
Of the latter 1^ nor cent, is dtfrotod to fall wheat, waich yields, on an average. 20 busiiels 
per acre; spring wlieat 12^ per cent, nnd 11 bush.; barley, 5 per cent, and 23 bush.; 
oats, 13 per cent and 8G bush.; rye (none grown, except 20 acres in Goderich), 12 bush.' 
peas, U per cen . and 16 bush.; corn (very Uttle grown), 85 bush.; buckwheat (ver^ 
httle grown) 30 bush.; potatoes, 1 per cent, and 150 bush.; turnips, 2 per cent, and 
4o0 bush.; other root crops, grown to a limited extent, 650 bush.; hav, lU Der cent 
and 1 J tons per acre. About 15 per cent, is dovotod to pasturage and about i per cent, 
to orchards Nine humlred acres arc devoted to flax culture. The vield of seed is 12 
bushels to tho acre The chief products of tlio county are wheat, barlev, oats and corn, 
but It IS equally well adapted to stock raising and dairying. Mixed Lusljandry is. on tho 
whole most suitable to it. 'Ihe yield of fall wheat in this county is excepliu/ially good. 
imlecd, nuron may be st't down as the finest wliuat producing county in Ontario. 



Stock axd Stock 1!v-L.vw.s. 



Tl 
hogs 
impru 



riio to'.viisliips suslam 55,715 horned catilo, 21,501 horses, 63,833 sheep and 10 oof] 

General purpose horses are mostly raise>l, but increased attention is beiuf' inid tn 

Vina breeds, and tJioro.ighbrod otock is bci;ig hugely introduced —in one township 



Sll 



(Hullett) to the extent of seventy-five per cent. The homed cattle and sheep, are nearly 
all. Krades. In Godendi townnhip great attention is being paid to poultry rSH?n^ ThI 
Township of Colborne Bhowe no less than $25,000 worth of imported stock. "^ 

Timber Lands. 

About twenty-nine per cent of the entire county area is still covered with timber 
jonsistmg mamly of hard and soft woods, used for fire ood, fencing and drainTng S<^e 
iiplemorts."' '° ^^^P-^'"^'^-^' -^^ i- '^^ manufacture' of furniture anTigficultral 

Market Fac'iutii!B. 

^.n ?/''^^* '° ?"n °^ two townships, the market facilities are reported good. The Lon- 
Grand TrTn^i.^ . '-^'^^^'.Woilington. Grey and Bruce. Torontof Grey and Bruce, ^d 
Orand Irunk iiailways intersect the county. 

Local Industries 

™. J^^ f "°^^ ^T .fift^'en cheese factories, one creamery, several flourinc mills salt 
works, and agricultural implement factories. ^ nouring mms, sait 

Population. 

The J4°.S'°1°S„tSuTn„rjtL'°...terT'"= °' "" ™°""«' "^ ^««»- 

Municipal Statistics. 

ta»„c, J09,56of o£ alt S:"oKj^^^^^^^^^ 

S^lLCorp?ation deb^nlures $577^88 ; pri,^^^^^^^^^^ 

uoan i^und, |51,856 ; other habilities, $300— in all «(i29 fi74 Thn +„*^ ^viumcipai 

ail purposes, and from all sources amounts to $487,566 ^ ''^'""' ^°' 

JMechanics, Farm Labourers and Domestic Servants, Etc. 
Salt Production. 



212 



Fruit Culture. 



Nearly all the varieties of fruit grown in other parts of the peninsula thrive on the 
lake shore oJ Huron, and fruit cultura in that district is rapidly developing into a 
separate and imporlant industry. 



Internal Communications. 

In addition to the railroads already named, the county has, perhaps, two hundred 
miles of the finest gravel roads in the Province. Goderich has a considerabh shipping 
trade. 

Egg-Packing. 

Several millions of eggs are annually shipped from this county to the United States 
markets, and the production is reported to be increasing, while greater attention is 
being paid to the raising of finer breeds of poultry. 



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COUNTY OF KENT. 



Slttlejient, 

The first settlers entered the Township of Camden in 1780, and during the next 
twenty years Howard, Harwich^ Raleigh, and Dover were opened up. The last township 
organized appears to have been that of Zone in 1835. Only two townships are reported 
as "all settled," but it may be concluded that all the land at present available has been 
occupied and that the balance consists of swampy or springy laud, which, in process of 
time, may he cleared and drained. 

Chakaoteb of the Soil. 

Clay and sandy loam, with clay and gravel subsoil, predominate. About sixteen per 
cent, consists of heavy clay, in some cases from three to four feet deep ; clay loam about 
thirty-nine per cent,, in some cases eight feet deep ; sandy loam, twenty-four per cent, 
and from two to eight feet deep. The remainder consists of sandy, gravelly, and black 
loam — the latter extremely rich, particularly in the Township of Raleigh. There is- 
absolutely no stony, rocky or hilly land in the county which may be set down as objec- 
tionable for the purposes of cultivation. Very little comes under the head of rolling but 
cultivable. About forty per cent, consists of bottom lands, nine per cent of swamps, 
and in the Township of Chatham sixty-seven per cent of wet lands. About fifty-four 
per cent, of the cleared area may be described as first-class for agricultural purposes^ 
thirty-four per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-class. 

Wateb. 

The townships are all well watered, except Tilbury, which depends mainly on rain 
or surface water collected in holes or cisterns dug for the purpose. The cheeks in 
Ealeigh dry up in the summer, but water is obtained by diggmg at variable depths in 
that and all the other townships. 

PaicE OF Farms. 

First-class improved farms, with superior dwellings and outbuildings, can be pur- 
chased at from $50 to $80 per acre ; second-class from $10 to $50 per acre ; and third- 
class from $8.50 to $25 per acre, according to quality and locality. 



Stumps. 

About forty-two per cent, of the cleared acreage is free from stumps. There are no 
pine stumps in any of the townships. 

Fences. 

About sixty- four per cent, of the farms in Kent are under first-class fence, consisting, 
wincipally, of hardwood rails and wire. 



233 



Fabu Dwellings and Outbuildings, 

' About forty-six per cent, of the farm houses are either of stone, brick or first-class 
frame ; the remamder are of log, or inferior frame. About forty-fiVe per cent of Sie 
outbuildmgs are superior— the remainder inferior. 

Dbainaob. 

Kent is one of the counties that have benefited greatly by the oneration of fhft 
Drainage Acts of he Ontario Government, a large area, now yielding spTendS crops-! 
particularly of Indian corn, which is grown to a%ery large extent !n tC comity-a^ 
wheat, having been reclaimed by an extensive system of o|en drains. TUe drSnL has 

aranTageTrLrer;? °' *'^ ''''''^'' ^''' ^ ^^^^^ ^' '^^ extetrfsta 

Fabm Machineby. 

;.„ rd*!"^"* eighty-five per cent, of the farmers use labour-saving machines, but harvest- 
mg machines are more m request than those used for seeding. aarvesc 



Feetilizees. 

ntini^ some townships no artificial fertnizers are used ; in others salt and plaster are 
utUized to a hmited extent on grain and clover and meadow land. ^ 

Uncleaeed Land. 

TilT^n^vT'f^ throughout the county the uncleared land is suitable for cultivation In 
andrw-ljllig E ""'°" ^' -clispensable in connection with the clearinrof S buS 

AOBBAOK AND AvEBAOB PbODUCTS. 

mn^J''! t'^T^ship dcreaga of Kent is given as 533,063, exclusive of Camden which has 
Zf n/.?TA ^^V'^*^^ "'""^'^"^ "^ ^^^'^^'^d acres, excepting Camderis about 217 
^ OA^! *^' atter about 25 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, whSh vields on an avi;" 
age, 24 bushels to the acre; spri..- wheat (very little sown) aVeia-e 14 h,/«r. LvT 
4 per cent, and 80 bush. ; oats, VA per ceit. and 41 buTh ^r^ i^oL LSSv . 't^fl 
per cent, and 17 bush. ; corn, 12 per cent, and 40 bush. ; bnckw^a li?t efownf 25^bush 
potatoes 1 per cent, and 125 bush. ; turnips (very little grown), avera4 not detel-minabt': 
other root crops (very little grown), average iot determiLble ; w!Xrcent and U fon« 
per acre. About 12 percent, is devoted to pasturage, and 8 p^r ce^t! to orchards A smTlI 
acreage is devo ed to the cultivation of white beans, clover^nd tobacco Kent fs wel 
adapted for grain growmg, stock raising, and dairying. Some townshbs are better for 
stock than otliors, but grain is successfully raised in all. Cheese maS' is succetsfdlv 
prosecuted m the Townships of Howard. Harwich, Orford, and Ealeigh! '"°°'''^^^y 

Stock. 

iP«,^^®*°^"'^'P^/"***'" ^^'^^"^ ^°™^'^ <'^"^«' 1^-1^0 horses. 19.959 sheep, and 18 - 
1 08 hogs General purpose horses are mostly raised, but in the Township of Howardsome 
thoroughbreds have been imported. The horned cattle and «hp«n are t..;«.:^.p-. - "~! 
andgrauu ; some interest Las of late been manifested in improving the breer '"Atten! 

rlised iutle'Str '' '"'''' ''''''''' ^''' '' ^"^^^"' '''''' are genlr^ 



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Fruit. 

.^uU for mile, . conltaual Ime of aj^and peS oJta^'a^STto^^arfr ^'""^ ""• 

Timber Lands. 

tree ie also found at many poinK £ ThetSolZt T^' *" ^^ -^^^ whitewood) 
liardwood manufactures, fencing and Wood r^n« / n°"*// principally used for 
to tree planting in some parts of Se com.Tvtb« fS .V' ^"'"*'°" ^^^^ '^^^'^ P^i^ 
^nd roadsides being already strUing and ajeeable °" *^' appearance of the farms 

Market FAoiLiTiEa. 

addition to railway commmWion If! n""^* Southern Eaihvays, and in 

at hand. and. in tL summer, daily ommu'Si'on t'"' '•'^f ^ ""f ^"^ ^^^^^ ports! 
Chatham and Detroit. "^ commumcatiou is mamtamed by steamer between 

Local Industries. 
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250 



COUNTY OF LAMBTON. 



Settlement. 

The first settlers entered the Townsliips of Dawn and Soubra in 1820-1, and in 
about twenty years the whole of the remaining townships were more or less settled, 
but Plympton and Sarnia are the only ones in which the process ia reported to have 
been entu-ely completed. 

Character of thr Soil. 

The soil consists principally of clay loam with a consiierable percenta£?e of heavy 
clay and sandy loam. The sub-soil is generally clay. The depth of soil averages about 
18 inches, but in some localities it is two feet deep. There is no stony or rocky land in 
any part of the couuty. There is a considerable percentage of low-Iyiug land, but for 
the most part the entire county, with the exception of Dawn and Sarnia Townships, 
consists of rolling cultivable land. Only in one township (Bosaiiqnet) one seventy- 
second part, or about 1,000 acres is reported to be too hilly for prolitable cultivation. 
There is very little swampy land, and the proportion of wet, springy laud is inconsider- 
able. About seventy per cent, of the cleared area is reported first-class for agricultural 
purposes; twenty-seven per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-class. These 
figures are approximate, as some of the towuyliips have reported on the enth-e area 
(including uncleared land). 

Water. 

The county is watered by wells and creeks, also by the Sydenham ftiver. There 
are few springs, except in the Township of Plympton. Wells form tlio principal source 
of water supply, and they are sunk in some cases to a depth of 160 and 100 feeL 

Pbiob of Farms. 

Farms can be bought at from $10 to $50 per acre, accordirg to locality, the nature 
of improvement, and the condition of farm houses and out-buildmgs. 

Stwmps. 

About forty-five per cent, of the cleared acreage is free from stumps. There are 
00 pme stumps of any consequence except m the Township of Bosanquet, which reports 
a proportion of one-twelfth. 

Fences. 

About one-half of the farms in the county are under first-class fence, consisting 
chiefly of oak and black ash rails, and wh-e. Wire fences are coming into general use. 

Farm Dwelltmgs and Outbuildings. 

About forty-two per cent, of the farr^ houses are either of brick, ainno or firsf-nloag 
frame; the remainder are of log or inferior frame. About fifty per cent, of the out-build- 
ingB are superior, and the balance inferior. 



261 



Dbainaoe. 

^nd^riUetrl'lgo'l™. ""' '""'• '^'" """''• ""' '° ^"°'8' " «>" -"■"y- 

Fabu Machinery. 

for Be^'eSg ^nd hitZg'.'' ""*' °' *^' '"""^ '^^ '"^'^°^^' labour-saving machines 

F£BTIIiIZE.HS. 

tnwr.S3*u*^^"f ?'' °^ *^^'°"' '''^^^"^^ ""*^'^"« a^« li'«° ased. But in some 
t «^ if • ?i ^^^'^^^^J'^ ""I'^r ^'""^ ^""^ ^''''- ^ Warwick, salt is largely used 
on all crops, in the proportion of about one barrel per acre. 

Uncleared Lands. 
oultivlSif dSeT^^ ^^"^ *'^''*" °^ *^^ ^^^"^ uncleared acreage is reported suitable for 

Acreage and Average Products. 

"^^^ township area of Lambton is given as 665,902 acres ; the cleared acreage aa about 

tlt:tt\-^M fLY^^' i''^'"''* ^'^ P'' "'''^- ^' ^'^°*°'i t« ^^11 ^i^eat, which gives an 
Sir Zf^S 90>, T^'^'f^'f^' «P""g ^i^eat, 4 per cent, and 18 bush.; barle,, 8 
per cent and 29 bush.; oats, 16 per cent, and 39 bush.; rye (little sown), 20 bush. ■ 
peas (httle sown) 15 bush.; corn, 5 per cent, and 30 bush.; buckwheat (little sown 15 
bush.; potatoes, U per cent, and 15C bush.; turnips, about 1 per cent, and 460 bush 
l^nZ 'lT\''\f^ i ^'' cent, and 520 bush.; hay, about 16 per cent, and 1^ tons 
per acre. About 16 per cent, is devoted to pasture; 1 per cent, to orchards, aid, in 
Plympt^ 5 per cent, to summer fallow. Flax is extensively raised in Enniskillen, and 
beans Hungarian grass and millet in Euphemia and Moore. The county is equally 
well adapted to gram growing, stock raising and dairying. Grazing is carried on as I 
profitable industry; a large export trade being done in fut beeves for the EngUsh market 

BTor«. 

The townships sustain 81,879 horned cattle ; 11,130 horses; 80,157 sheep, and 7,674 
hogs. General purpose horses and grade cattle preponderate- -thoroughbred stock 
havmg been mtroduced only to a limited extent. 

Timber Lands. 

About 48 per cent, of the entire area is still -overed with timber consisting of oak, 
asn, eJm, beech, maple, basswood, hickory and some pine, used priucipaUy for fuel, 
building and feeding. The oak, however, is made into staves, square timber and planks 
lor ship and car building, and ash is used for barrel hoops. 






;)' ,| 




Market Facilities. 

Laiiiblon has good markets and ample facihties for reaching them. The roads are 
^od, and the Grand Trunk, Canada Southern, and Great Western Eailways intersect 

J * 



252 



Local Industries. 

Lambton is the princiral seat of the great petroleum industry in Canada, which 
with some salt works, furnishes employment for a large number of hands. The othe; 
mdustnes are those always attendant upon an agrkultural population T ere are 
nmeteen cheese factories m the county, also several steam saw, grist and stave mills- 

Municipal Statistics. 

Number of acres assessed, 670,424 ; number of ratepayers assessed, 9,500 Assets • 
assessed value of real estate, «ilO,61G,950; personal property, $1195093- taxable 

$5 026 t J ifoh.i''^^^^^^^^ 226,062; other liabilities. 

!J.5,U2b, m all, |231,678. The total revenue for all purposes and from all som-ces 
amounted, accordmg to the last published returns, to $298,465. 



Population. 

The population of Lambton, as now municipally sonstituted, was, aoccrdine to the 
census of 1871, 89,892. . s ixi« 



Stock By-Laws. 

These exist in each township. In some townships there have been convictions 
before justices, particularly in the neighoourhood of villages, but generally throughout 
the comity the by-laws are practically inoperative. In two townships swine are allowed 
to run at large, doing great injury to foads and ditches. 

Mechanics, Farm Labourers and Sebvants. 

There is always a demand in this county for good farm labourers and domestic 
servants. 

Fruit Culture, 

Fruit growing is coming to be looked upon as an industry in this county. Winter 
apples are exported to i^nglaud and the States, where they fetch good pric>3s. Apples 
form two thirds of the entire fruit crop, but autumn pears, plums, cherries, grapes, 
and currants are successfully grown for home consumption. Peaches and melons 
are also grown, but not profitably. 




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268 



COUNTY OF LANAKK. 



Settlement. 

The settlement of this county commenced in the Township of Montague, about 
1790, and within thirty-five years all the townships which now compose the county had 
been entered. Taking into consideration the character of the land in some of the town- 
ships, Lanark may be said to be as completely settled as it is likely to be until there is a 
larger percentage of land cleared and drained. It took, on an average, about twenty- 
eight years from the entrance of the firs, settlers until the process of settlement was 
completed. 

Ohabacteb op the Soil. 

The soil of this county is extremely variable. In some townships heavy clay pre- 
dominates, in others sandy loam and gravelly. In Montague it is reported "generally 
poor " ; in Bathurst and North Burgess, " fair "; in Drummond, "from average to good." 
The heavy clay is in the proportion of about 18 per cent., with a depth of from 6 inches to 
6 feet; clay loam, 9 per cent.; sandy loam, 38 per cent.; and sand, 11 per cent. The 
remainder is described as gravelly and black loam. The sub-soil consists of clay, gravel 
and hard-pan. lOut 49 per cent, of the acreage is reported to be too stony or has rock 
too near the surface to be profitably cultivated, and 22 per cent, is so hilly as to be 
objectionable for the purposes of cultivation. The proportion of rolling but cultivable 
land is set down as 85 per cent., bottom lands 5 per cent., swamp 10 per cent., and wet 
1 per cent. About 8 per cent, is reported first-class for agricultural purposes, 25 per 
cent, second-class, and the remainder third-class. 

Wateb. 

The county is well watered, and water can be obtained in all the townshipa by 
digging, at depths varying (torn three to sixty feet. 

Price of Fabms. 

In some townships land can be purchased at from $1.60 to $5 per acre, but first- 
class improved farms in good localities, with good buildings, range from |80 to |60 per 
acre. 

Stumps. 

About sixty per oent. of the cleared acreage is tolerably well cleared of stumps. Of 
thoge remaining very few are pine stumps. 

Fences 

About thirty per oent. of the farms are under first-class oedar fence — the remainder 
are generally well fenced with cedar logs and ash boards. 



269 



Fabm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About twenty-six per cent, of the farm houses are of brick, stone, or first-clasa 
frame; the remainder are of log or inferior frame. About twenty-nine per cent, of the 
buildings are first-class, the remainder inferior. 

Drainaqe. 

Drainage has not been extensively prosecuted, and very Utile tile drainage has been 
aooomplished. 

Farm Machinery. 

About forty-six per cent, of the farmers use improved machinery — principally 
reapers, mowers and rakes. 

Fertilizers 

Very few are used. Salt, in the proportion of 500 iuo to the acre, has been used 
snccessfully in Bathurst for grain crops. In other townships, is, '<i used for wheat, corn 
and meadows. In only one township is plaster reported to have been mtroduced. 

Uncleared Lands. 

About nineteen per cent, of the uncleared land is prououuced suitable for cultiva- 
tion, if cleared. Much may be done by judicious under- draining of bottom and swamp 
lands. 

Aobeaok and Average Products. 

The entire acreage of Lanark is 600,764 ; the total cleared acreage is 222,782, 
omitting the Township of North Elmsley, which hae made no return. Of the cleared 
acreage, about 2 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, which yields, on an average, 18 
bushels per acre; spring wheat, 13 per cent, and 10 bush.; barley (very little grown), 
23 bash,; oats, 12 per cent, and 21 bush.; rye, 2^ per cent, and 13 bush.; peas, 8 per 
cent, and 18 bush.; com (very little grown), 26 bush. ; buckwheat (very little grown), 
20 bush.; potatoes, l^per cent, and 102 bush.; turnips (very little grown), about 480 
bush.; other root crops (very little grown), 316 bush. ; hay, 16 percent, and 1 ton per 
acre. About 20 per cent, of the cleared acreage is devoted to pasturage, and a very small 
percentage to orchards. The county, as a whole, is best adapted for stock raising and 
dairying, but some townships are more favourable than others for mixed husbandry. 
Poultry raising is extensively carried on in the Township of Lanark, which exports 
about 15 tons annually. The western end of Lanark has suffered a good deal from 
grasshoppers since 1874, but they nearly disappeared in the summer of 1879. 

Stock. 

Lanark sustains 22,986 horned cattle, 6,850 horses, 27,lo2 sheep, and 5,251 hoga. 
The ordinary native breeds predominate, but thoroughbreds are being introduced — prin- 
cipally by the agricultural societies. 

Ti:ui3eb Lands. 

About twenty-four per cent, of the uncleared land is covered with timber or bush. 
The timber is chiefly pine, beech, maple, basswood, asu, birch, cedar and tamarack. A 
^; ■••'•» rtwiTT ■c^i^'u-TT: tiauc in iiaiuwuuu 13 curiicu. uu, aiiu oucru 18 a iargo looai consump- 
tion for railway ties, fencing, fuel, &c. A great destruction of pine took place from the 
great tire in 1870. 



270 



Market Facilities. 



On ^.he whole, Lanark possesses good market facilities. The Canada Central, 
with branches and extensions, skirts the eastern section of the county, itnd there are 
also good concession roads. Bathurst is the only township reported to be at a dis- 
advantage from want of railway communication. 



Local Lndcstries. 

There are several large woollen mills at Almonte and some smaller ones in various 
parts of the county, employing, in all, about 1,0(.)0 hands ; also some saw mills, employing 
about 500 hands while runuiiM' in summer, and about 1,000 hands lumbering in winter. 
There is also a revival of the square timber trade, with an expectation that it will in a 
year or two assume its old proportions. Lumbering gives the farmer the highest prices 
at his own door, and has materially helped t(i settle the county. Mining is also exten- 
sively prosecuted, and there are ten cheese factories within the county Umits. 



Population. 

Omitting South Sherbrooke, which makes no return, the population, according to 
the latest enumeration, is 20,980. 



Municipal Sta'.istics. 

Number of acres assessed, 635,101 ; number of ratepayers assessed, 8,111. Assets : 
assessed value of real estate, !S6,813,223 ; personal property, §858,990 ; taxable income, 
$81,725; arrears of taxes, §7,012; other assets, $95,950 — making a grand total of 
$7,856,900. Liabilities: Corporation debentures, $16,695; other liabilities, $1,200— 
in all, $1:7,895. The total revenue for all purposes and from all sources amounted, 
according to the last published returns, to §179,775. 



Stock Bt-Laws 

Exist in all the townships, but they are not enforced. One report says: " But few 
carry out the provisions of the By-laws, as there are but few who do not break those 
provisions." Another report says: " The inhabitants, generally, ai-e very forbearing, 
and would rather suffer loss than give offence.' 



Mechanics, Farm Labourers and Servants. 

Since 1874 the supply of labour has about equalled the demand, but a rcvivjil of 
trade generally leaves the labour market rathet- bare. There is no rotiort as to remunera- 
tion of mechanics, farm labourers, or domestic servants. 



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288 



LEEDS AND GKENVILLE. 



Skttlkment. 

Leeds and Grenville werd largely settled by United Empire Loyalists late in the 
last century. Leeds was first entered in 1780, and Grenville in 1775. All the town- 
ships may be considered sctled— the unoccupied land being unsuitable for general 
agricultural purposes. The process of settlement was completed in, oa au average, 

filty-three years. 

Charactkk of the Soil. 

The soil of both counties is extremely variable. About 20 per cent, consists of 
heavy clay, 22 per cent, of clay loam, 19 per cent, sandy loam, 14 per cent, sand, 16 
per cent, gravelly, and 12 per cent, black loam. Except in South Gower and Oxford, 
where the subsoil is generally sand and gravel of unascertained depth, and Leeds, 
Lansdowne aud Edwardsburg, where it consists principally of clay, the soil lies upon 
Laurentian rock and has a depth of from 3 to 10 feet. Owing to the reports being, for the 
most part, based on the entire area, instead of the cleared acreage, it is impossible to 
estimate, even approximately, how much of the cleared land is too stony, or rocky, for 
profitable cultivation, but the percentage must be very large. The p .vjentage of rolling 
but cultivable laud, is set down at about 29 per cent., but it ie evident that some 
townships have included uncleared land under this heading. The same remark applies 
to bottom, swampy and springy lands, and the only way of arriving at an intelligible esti- 
mate of the value of the cleared acreage, is by averaging the replies to question 12. 
From these it appears that about 21 percent, may be considered first-class for agricultural 
pm-poses, 81 per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-class. 

Watek. 

Both counties are well watered. Leeds has numerous lakes, and both it and Gren- 
ville are bounded by the St. Lawrence River and Eideau Canal ; besides which there are 
numerous small streams, aud abundant springs. Water can be obtained by digging, at 
depths generally of from twelve to twenty feet. 

Price of Farms. 

Good farms are purchasable at from $20 to $50 per acre, but unimproved land 
can be purchased in some localities at as low as $1.50 per acre. Along the river irnni 
and the hue of the Grand Trunk Eailway, farms are much more valuable than in the 
rear townshipa Good farms, nearly all cleared, can be leased, in Grenville, at from $1 
to $2 per acre. 

Stumps. 

About sixty-eight per cent, of the cleared acreage is free from stumps, and of the 
stumps remaining very few are of pine. 

Fences. 

About forty-five per cent, of the fams are under first-class cedar and ash fences. 
"Wire is also being introduced. 



289 



PaBM DWELLINQS AND OuTBUILDINQS. 

About forty-nine per cent, of the farm dwellings are o.'briok. atone, or first-claw 
frame ; the remainder are log, or of inferior T. . . ). Of the outbuildings about forty, 
three per cent are superior, and the rem I- (loi inf,,rior. 

Di ii..iii. 

Very little underdruining has bee.i done ( xeae counties, and in no instance is tilt 
reported to have been employed, exoep' in th- b'ront of Youge, -vhere, however, the pr> 
portiOL of tilo draining ia inoonsiderabla 

Farm Machinert. 

About fifty-nine per cent of the farmers use improved reapers, mowers and sulky 
rakes. Seed drills are also coming into use. 

Fertilizers. 

Supeiphosphates, plaster, and salt, are used to a Umited extent upon grain, peas, 
grass and clover. 

Uncleared Lands. 

About twenty-eight per cent of the uncleared lands are reported fit for cultivation, 
if cleared. 

Acreage and Average Products. 

The township area of the United Counties is given as 741,451 J acres- the 
cleared acreage as 448,796. Of the latter about 4 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, 
which yields, on an average, about 20 buabels per acre (in many towns' "os the en- 
Ure sowing was winter killed in 1879) ; spring wheat, 6 per cent, and 9 bush.- bar- 
ley, 7 per cent, and 21 bush. ; oats, 16 per cent, and 27 bush.; rye, 5 per cent, and 17 
bush.; peas, 5 per cent, and 17 bush.; corn (very little grown) 26 bush.; buckwheat 
(very little grown) 25 bush. ; potatoes, about 2 per cent, and 127 bush. ; turnips (very 
httle grown), 450 bushels; *ther root crops (very little grown\ 470 bush. ; hay, 24 per 
cent, and li tons per acre. Owing to the mixed character of the returns, some of which 
are made to include bush pastures, the actual quantity of cleared land devoted to pas- 
turage cannot be ascertained. A very small proportion of the land is devoted to orch- 
ards, and hops are grown in the Township of Augusta. On the whole, the counties are 
well adapted for stock raising, grain growing, and dairying, but some townships are 
better adapted for dairying than others. 

Stock. 

Native and some grade stock are extensively raised. The breeds are being im- 

.proved by the introduction of thorousiibreds, but, as yet, onlv to a limited extent. The 
townships sustain 44,801 horucd cattic, 15,095 horses, 38,22^1 sheep, and 11,075 hogs. 

TiUBEB Lands. 

In all the townships, except South Burgess and North Orosbyj which have Kuffftred 
from the ravages of bush iires, there is a large amount of standing " "ber,' consisting 
niiiinly of hard and soft woods, used for firewood, fencing, lumber, IrucJiets and pails. 

VJ 








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290 



Market fAoiLiTiES. 

Thanks to tlie facilities afforded by the St. Lawience Biver, the Grand Trunk 
'l^i^' *"® Carpda Central Eailway, and the Eideau Csnal, the counties experience 
no difBculty in reaching the best markets. The ports of Brockville, aauanoque, and 
Eockport, afford excellent facilities for shipments to the United States, and a large busi- 
ness IS done m exporting grain and oLher products at those points. Prescott also does 
a large business wi'h Ogdensburgh; and Smith's Falls, KemptviUe, and Farmersville 
are a good deal resorted to by farmers in their more immediate localities. ' 

Local Ixdustries. 

The United Counties contain chemical works for the manufacture cf superphos- 
phates, four steam saw mills, the usual local industries attendant upon a farming popu- 
lation, mno creameries, and (exclupive of the Township Eear of Leeds, where several 
exist, but the number is not furnished,) sixty-eight cheese factories, some of th'^m 
on a small scale, very energetically conducted by private individuals, with a view "to 
meetmg lOcal requirements in sparsely populated districts. Brockville is a lar-e 
butter market, and its brand is highly esteemed, both in United States and English 
markets. At Prescott is located the well known stock farm of Mr. Wiser MP In 
connection with his distillery, Mr. Wiser annually exports to En:iland about 1,100 fat 
beeves, which command high prices in that market. He is also paying great attention 
to the raising of trottin horses, particularly of the Hambletoniau breed. At Cardinal 
?? w m®^ *^^ ^/^^^ ^^""^ Eailway, there is a large starch factory. At this place 
Mr. W. T Benson has a farm of \000 acres devoted to the breeding of Shorthorns 
for winch he chiefly finds a market in the United States. 

Population. 

m, m^® population of the two counties, according to the census of 1871, was G7 918 
Ihe Town of Brockville has now a population of about 7,600. 

Municipal Statis.'ics. 

Leeds and Grenvilt.e : Number of acres 'issGs<=;pf1 7flfi'-ii'->. ^„x„„ 
12.782. Assets: assessed value of real es Se ^11 oTq 7or , ' "^^fP*.^'^^'^ as^^^ssed, 
817 • tftxablp i-nonmo «os QQ.i Tt^ai csiute t511,Ul.-i,10G personal property, $871 . 

Assets : assessed value of rpnl PRfnfp 'fti fl^-TotK -'j . ^^-i-Lpavcis assessed, j.bjja. 

.' " s ™s''S"srrirtv -'^p' 'T"" 'fr' '""' -"=• woS; 

J.io\.u;y,J A personal property , , o,7c , other asset ;. $60,000— in all i^qo^ i,,., 

Liabilities: Corporation debentures, .^JCl OS-total, $56.1UH. iWl revenue: iji9;p2"t 

Stock By-I,aw3 
Exist, but are geneially disregarded. 



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310 



LENNOX AND ADDINGTON, 



SeITLEMBNTi 

wJfli H?f f ^!?^""®°* of this county-the municipal limits of which must not be confounded 
S^TniM^/'T''"*''^ ^^. *^' «^«°*°^^^ ^i«'"°t« of the County of Lennox and the 
Elding of Addington respectively-commenced in the Township of North Frederiok^hnr! 
snort y after the American Bevolution of 1776. The township ranidlv filled ^n/wf! 
^n^? f iShuiS^S *"^^i^r ^^^" ^'S''^- S F^eSlhuifwafo^^ 
LS^rCrsTefe^^^^^^^ ^'Camde^^ and 

Ohar:.otbb of the Sore. 

Prick of Farms. 
Good farms can be purchased in the older settled townships at from «qn fn «7n 

Stumps. 
Anglesea and Kaladar two- thirds of those remaining are pine. ^ ' '^ 



311 



Fences, 

About 47 per cent, of the farms in Lennox and Addington are reported to be under 
first-class fence, consrsting mainly of cedar. 

Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About 48J per cent, of the farm dwellings are of brick, stone, or first-class frame ; 
the remainder are log or of inferior frame. Of the outbuildings about BQi per cent 
are first-class, the remainder are inferior. 

Dbainage. 

Under-drainage has not been commenced in Mie northern townships, but in the 
south some progress has been made in tUe drainage. 

Faem Machinery. 

Nearly 66 per cent, of the farmers use improved labour-saving machines. Denbigh 
reports that only threshing machines are used in that township and attached mimici- 
pahties. 

Fertilizers. 

Except in North Fredericksburg, where one-fourth of the farmers use plaster and 
salt on clover, peas and corn, artificial manures are very little used. On Amherst 
Island, superphosphates are used to a very limited extent. 

Unoleared Lands. 

About 60 per cent, of the uncleared acreage of the county would be suitable for cul- 
tivation if cleared. 

Acreage and Average Products. 

The township acreage of Lennos and Addington (omitting Effingham, fi:om which 
no return has been received) is set down as 682,096j, and the cleared acreage as 
182, 844^. Of the latter (omitting Adolphustown and Eflfingham), lees than 1 per ceni 
is devoted to fall wheat, which yields from 10 to 20 bushels per acre ; barley (omitting 
Sheffield and Camden, which do not report the acreage devoted to the various grains and 
roots), 85 per cent, and 22 bash.; oats, 10 per cent, and 25 bush.; rye, 6 per cent, and 
18 bush. ; peas, 7 per cent, and 15 bush. ; corn (very little grown), 32 bush. ; buckwheat, 
(very little grown), 22 bush.; potatoes, 1^ per cent, and 105 bush.; turnips (very httle 
grown), 240 bush.; other root crops (very httle grown), average cannot be estimated; 
hay, 17 per cent, and 1 ton per acre. About 88 per cent, of the cleared acreage, and a 
large quantity of the uncleared, is devoted to pasturage, and a small proportion, probably 
about 1 per cent., to orchards. Stock raising, mixed husbandry, and barley growing 
are most in favour. Barley growing is extensively practised, and large quantities are 
exported to the United States, where a high price is obtained ; Napanee is the centre 
of a large export trade in this oereaL 

Stock. 

The townships sustain 42,487 horned cattle, 9,476 horses, 17,642 sheep, and 6,717 
hogs, principally consisting of common breeds and grades, though in some townships 
thoroughbreds have been iutioduced. Anglesea, Kaladar and Denbigh, with associated 
townships, do not render returns of cattle, horses and sheep. 



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TiMBEB Lands. 

1 A ^-^^ *° the returns being in several instances obviously inaccurate, the extent of 
land m the counties under timber cannot be estimated. Four-fifths of Denbigh and 
associated townships are, however, reported to be nnder pine, maple, beech and cedar, 
and lumbering is extensively carried on. There is also a considerable quantity of timber 
land in North and South Fredericksburg, m Camden, and in Sheffield. 

Market FAoiLiriES. 

Napanee and Bath are the principal market towns, and they are easily reached by 
road rail and water. Newburgh and Taraworth are flourishing viUages. The lumber 
shanties m the northern townships also furnish good markets. The Grand Trunk 
Kailway runs through Ernesttown and Fredericksburg to Napanee. 

Local Industries. 

The county possesses three large paper mills, four agricultural implement and 
several carriage factories, four woollen and numerous saw and grist mills, a wheel and 
hub factory, sixteen cheese factories, several foundries, a brush factory, and several 
cabinet factories, and the manufacture of water lime is carried on extensively. L:on 
has been found m the Township of Sheffield of good quality, but whether it exists in 
paying quantities is still to be decided. SUver has also been discovered in Sheffield and 



Anglesea 



Faem Laboxtrebs and Domestics. 



There is a limited demand for agricultural labourers, but good domestic seryants 
ftre always m request. 

Municipal Statistics. 

Number of acres assessed, 400,696; ratepayers assessed, 7,414. Assets: assessed 
value of real estate |7,081, 895 ; personal property, $299,937; taxable income, $30,850; 
arrears of taxes, $18,014,- other assets, $96,814-making a grand total of $7,683,010 
Liabilities: Corporation debentures, $190,900; other habilities, $400-.in all, $191,800. 
returns to^sTl2 29r ^"^^^^^^ ^""^ ^'"^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ amounted, according to the last 

Population. 

The population of Lennox and Addington, as now municipally constituted, was 
aocordmg to the census of 1871, 20,705. 






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326 



COUNTY OF LINCOLN. 



Settlement. 

Lincoln is an old and wholly settled county, which was entered immediately after 
the American Eevolution by U. E. Loyalists. The Township of Caistor filled rapidly, 
and m twenty years from the entrance of its first settlers in 1778, it was completely 
occupied. Between that date and 1784, when Niagara Township was entered, settle- 
ment was rapid— land having been taken up in all the townships during that period. 
The process of settlement was completed in the entire county in, on an ayerage about 
fifty years. ' 

Chaeacter of the Soil. 

The soil of this county consists mainly of clay, clay loam, grayelly, sandy, and black 
loams— some of surpassing richness. The proportions are : heavy clay, about 28 per 
cent.; clay loam, 23 per cent.; sandy loam, 17 per cent.; sand, 14 per cent.; gravelly, 
13 per cent.; black loam, 10 per cent. (These figures are approximate, as the report 
from the Township of Louth embraces the entire acreage, while the others are based upon 
the cleared acreage.) The depth of soil varies from G to 15 inches. The subsoil is gen- 
erally, a reddish clay, with here and there— and particularly in Niagara Townshfp— 
hardpan. About 2,000 acres, principally the face of " tho mountain," are uncultivable, 
and 1,000 acres in the To^vnship of Louth are so hilly as to be objectionable for th. pur- 
poses of cultivation. About 14 per cent, of the land is roUing, but cultivable, 14 per 
cent, is bottom land, a very small quantity of land in Grimsby and Louth is swampy 
but can be drained and cultivated, and there is an entir.; absence of wet, springy land! 
Of the entire cleared acreage 62 per cent, is reported firi,.-clas3 for agricultural purposes,' 
25 per cent, second-class, and the remainder (in the Townships of Caistor, Gainsborou<^h 
and Louth) third class. '^ 

Water. 

The eounty ia well watered. In Niagara Township there is what is called the 
"Four Mile Creek," which is fed by never-failing springs. There are also several 
smaller streams. There are several springs in other townships, but wells form the prin- 
cipal Bom-ce of supply. These are sunk to depths varying from four to thirty feet. 

Price of Farms. 

In Louth, farms can be bought at from $25 to §80 per acre; in Grimsby, at from 
$8 to $100 per acre (the ktter fruit-growing land) ; in the other tor jships the average 
price is from $20 to $G0 per acre. 

Stumps. 

Nearly i>.inety per cent, of the cleared acreage is free from stumps— those remaining 
are, principf.lly, pine stumps. 

Fen-CIS. 

The whole of the farms in the county are well fenced with rails, board and wire. 
In the Township of Caistor. pine stumps have been employed to some extent. 



887 



Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About fifty-six per cent, of the farm dwellings are reported to be of brick, stone, or 
first-olass frame ; the remainder are log, or of interior frame. About fifty per cent. 
of the outbuildings are reported first-class ; the ramamder are inferior. 



Drainage. 

In the Townships Oi Grimsby, Grantham, Louth, and Niagara, tile draining has 
been carried on to a limited extent. Niagara reports that very Utile under- (kainmg is 
necessary, owing to the configuration of the land. In Caistor, Clinton, and Gamsbor- 
ough, no under- draining has been done. 



!TTT 



Farm Machineat, 

All the farmers (except ui Caistor and Louth, wh-ir* the proportion is three-fourth* 
and nine-tenths,) use improved farm machmery. 

Fertilizers. 

Lime, salt, plaster, and superphosphates, are used to a considerable extent, but in 
variable quantities. In Niagara Township, the proportions are as foHows : salt, 300 
lbs.; superphosphates, 250 lbs.; plaster, 260 lbs.; and lime, 40 bushels per acre. Thej 
are used on all kinds of crops, and on grass land and clover. 



Uncleared Lands. 

AH the uncleared lands in the county would be suitable for cultivation, if cleared, 
except the mountain, which runs through Grantham and Grimsby. Two-thii-ds of th« 
uncleared land in Louth could be brought under cultivation. 

AOBEAOE AND AvERAOE PbODUCTS. 

The township area of Lincoln is givon as 191,459 acres; the cleared acreage as 133,- 
345 Of the latter about 15 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, which yields, on an aver- 
age,' 18 bushels per acre ; spring wheat (very little grown), 10 bush. ; barley (little grown), 
22 bush.; oats, 15 per cent, and 81 bush. ; rye (very littie grown), 15 bush.; peas (very 
little grown), 18 bush.; corn, 11 per cent, and 41 bush.; buckwheat (very little grown), 
20 bush.; potatoes, about i of 1 per cent, and 87 bush, (in five townships the average 
is 100 bushels) ; turnips (hardly any raised), about 860 bush.j o+^^or root crops (very 
few raised), 850 bush. ; hay, 20 per cent, and 1 ton per acre. About 18 per cent, is 
devoted to pasturage, and 8 per cent, to orchards. In addition a portion of each farm 
is summer fallowed, and a certain amount of land (not estimated) is devoted to the 
growth of various descriptions of fruit, sugar cane, sweet potatoes and Hungarian grass. 
Some of the townships are best adapted to grain growing, stock raising, and dairying, 
but in Niagara fruit is the chief product, and all the townships are well adapted for 
fruit cultura 

Stock. 

General purpose horses (heavy draught and roadsters), native bred cattle, crossed 
with Durhams, grade sheep and hogs, and the common varieties of poultry, are mostly 
m request, but some thoroughbred stock has been introduced, particularly in Niagara 
Township, which is reported as possessing some very fine full-bred Durhams. The town- 
ships Bustam 12,962 horned cattle, 7,224 horses, 12,155 sheep, and 6,560 hogs. 









328 



TiMiiKR Lands. 
firrhflf "/"'^ f *1'° 'r°^"^"'P «f f^'ii^^tor, which does not report the area of land still 

Mahkkt Faciutus. 
Lincoln has pood markets within her own limits • in flrlfliHnr, ai,„ i 

Local Industries. 

Population. 

The population of Lincoln, as now municipally constituted, was, according to the 

rr^oln^^-^' !^^^.^^- ^^° population of St. Catharines is now about 12 oSo Wel- 
land, 2,600; and Niagara, 3,000. ' ' 

MrNiciPAL Statistics. 

There are no returns showing the assessments, assets, liabilities and revenue of this 
count} , in the Municipal Statistics printed by the Ontario Government in 1878. 

Fruit Culture. 

Fruit growing is a very important industry in this county, and iu is likely to in- 
crease, owing to the adaptability of the soil and climate for the raising of almost every 
kmd of fruit. Peaches are largely cultivated, as many as 70,000 baskets, raised within 
an area of two miles, having been shipped from Grimsby station in 1880. Large quanti- 
ties of peaches are canned, and next season canning will be carried on on an extensive 
scale, probably for exportation to the United States and England. Peaches tind a ready 
market m Toronto, Guelpb, Hamilton, London, Montreal, and Halifax, which latter point 
18 reached by express in three or four days. Apple and grape culture is also extensively 
prosecuted. Apples are shipped to England, where some choice varieties command 
high prices. An apple-drying establishment has been started at St. Catharines with 
a capacity to dry 150 bushels a day, during the season. Grapes, of which large quan- 
tities are grown, are sold for dessert or made into wine. Plums, pears, strawberries 
raspberries, currants, and all the commoner descriptions of fruit, are exteusivelv and 
profitably grown. "^ 

Mechanics, Labourers and Domestic Servants. 

The supply of labom- of all kinds in this county is reported, at present, to exceed 
the demand. 







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COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX. 



Settleuent. 

Settlement commencea in the Township of Delaware in 1801, and contmued in 
active opera ion until m 1849. the last township-that of West WiiliamsJwa entered 

«ml w 1 1^^*'' r^'^'^'^'P^r "'^ ''^'''^''^ *° ^^ ^" «^*t»^'l. ^ith the except of 
Bome wet lands in Caradoo ; Delaware is "nearly all settled," while the proporLu 

T,Tlr\?"'"^'"-'' !' mne-tenths, Ekfrid fifteen-sixteenths, 'Mosa about LShs 
pIv n? J'fi^''"^H'"*^'• 1^?°"* thirty-two and a half years elapsed between the 
entiy of the first set ers and the completion of the process of settlement in the ten 
townships reported fully occupied. 

Character op the Son.. 

Heavy clay, clay loam, and sandy loam, are the predominating soils, but as some 
of the returns are incomplete, or unintelligible, the exact proportions cannot be statS 
The soils vary m depth from twelve to twenty-four inches^ and rest upon subsoHs of 
day and sand-mamly the former Only a small portion of the area in Adelaide and 
N.ssoun are reported stony or rocky, and in the former township, there are onlv rocks 
and stones sufficient for buUding purposes, Eighteen hundred acres in Adelaide Bid! 
dulph Delaware, Ekfx-id Nissouri and Westminster, and about four thousand acesn 
McGil ivray are repotted to be so hilly as to be objectionable for the purposes of cultiva- 
tion; the remaiuder is largely rolling and cultivable, though there is a considerable 
percentage of bottom and swampy, and a small percentage of wet, springy land 
As nearly as can be estimated, and omitting three townships which have obviously 
based their report upon the entire area instead of the cleared acreage, about fifty-five 

S?htelfmtrThil^i:ir '' ''' '^^" '' '''''''''' *^*^ ^- -"*' ^^^ '^-' 

Water. 

The county is, on the whole, well watered. Some townships have the rivers Thames 
and Sable, seveml have creeks, and all have wells of various depths. In Mosa, water is 

Sn fif • ZT\ "f' ^' ^'°^ ^^?, K^^^''"" ^''^> ^ ^^*y' «i^ty-fi^^ f'^^t. or by boring 
260 feetj and wells have, apparently, been sunk to a depth of 100 feet in two other 
townships. There are three flowmg wells in Mosa and several in West Williams. 

Price of Farhs. 

Cftn "^i'.'*:'^^'' ii^Proyed farms, with good dwcllingg, can bo purchased at from $45 to 
|80 per acre; socond-class from $30 to $G0 per acre; and third class, from llO to 
«2o per acre. Farms can be leased at from $1 to $4 per acre 



■n. 



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340 



Stumps. 

About sixty-four per cent, of the cleared acreage of Middlesex is reported to be free 
from stumps. Only in Dorchestor Township is tliero any oonbiderable i)roporUon oi 
pine stumps. 

Fknce3, 

Three townships lay claim to verv kw first-class fences ; the remainder have them 
in the proporti of fifty-two and a half per cent. The material employed, gc ierally, 
consists of ash, oak and elm boards, with, in some cases, cedar posts. In one township 
(West Williams), hickory rails are used. la 'VVeetrainster and Lobo, rail timber is 
Bcarce, and in most of the townships, hardwood h.is to be employed. 

Fabm Dwellings and Outbuildings, 

About fifty-two per cent, of the farm houses are reported to bo of briok, stonn ,• 
first-class frame— the remainder are log, or of inferior frame. About fifty-nine ^ 
cent, of the outbuildings are first-class— the remainder are inferior. 



m 




Dbainaoh. 

Considerable progress has been made in this county in the matter of drainage. In 
some townships twenty to twenty-five per cent, of the farms have been under-dramed. 
There are nearly ninety-seven miles of tile draining in the Townsliip of Westminster, and 
a considerable proportion in other townships. In Lobo, one-half of the clay soil was 
under-drained with tile ten years ago, and this laud now yields the best crops. Other 
townships are reaUziug the advantage of tile draining, and there la likelihood of its being, 
hereafter, .^esorted to on a very extensive scale. 

Fabm MACHiNEiiy. 

About eighty-four per cent, of the farmers use improved machinery— mostly reap- 
ene and mowers and sulky rakes. Seed drills are not so much in recpost— broadcaet 
seeders having the preference. 

Fertilizers. 

About sixteen per cent, of the farmers use artificial manures, in various proportions 
per acre. In Lobo, salt is used at from 800 to 400 pounds per acre, and plaster at 
from 200 to 800 lbs. per acre. In other townships, salt is used to the extent of 200 
lbs. per acre, and plaster 100 lbs. Plaster is mostly used for corn, and salt, generally, 
on grain and root crops, clover and meadows. It is profitably used on oats and mangolds, 
in the Township of Lobo. 

Uncleared Lands. 

About eighty-one per cent of the uncleared land is reported fit for cultivation, if 
cleared and properly drained. 

Acreage and Average PaoDUoia 

The township acreage of Middlesex is given as 753,692 ; the cleared acreage as 478,479 
Of the latter about 16 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, which yields, on an .^^erage 



341 



about 20 bushnls per acre; spring wheat (vory little Bown), QJ bush,; barley, 9 per 
ceut. and 29 bush. ; oats, 14 J per coat, and '29 bush. ; rye (hardly any so .), 16 bush • 
peas (hardly any sown), 17 bush.; corn, about 4 per cent. ;* buckwheat (hardly any 
Bown), 25 buKli.; potatoes, about 1 per cent, and 1G8 bush.; turnips, rather less than 1 
per cent, and 420 bush.; other root crops, 8J per cent, and 457 hi , ; hay, about 16 
per ceut. and 1^ ton per acre. About 11 per cent, of the cleared ac. .age is devoted to 
pastnira, and about U per cent, to orchards, ioity per cent, of the pasturage in Cara- 
doc is woodland. Flax is grown to a small extent in Biddulph; 432 acres are devoted 
to its culture in McGiliiyray and Westminster, tad 1 per cent of ihe cleared acreage "i 
West Williams. ° 

SxooK. I 

The townships sustain 60,595 hor"od cattle; , ; ,129 horses; 47,684 sheep, ano 
18,018 hogs. G-enerni purpose horses a .< most in rec est. There are also some large 
breeders of thoroughbred and coach horses in the c, anty. Thoroughbred Durhams, 
grades and native cattle, Leicester, Cotswold and Lincoln sheep, and Berkshire hoge are 
extensively raised. Stock by-laws exist, but they are only partially enforced. 

TlUBEB LANoa 

_ About thirty-five and a half per cent, of the land in the county is still covered with 
timber, (excepting the Township of Delaware, which makes no return under this head) 
The timber generally consists of hardwood, used for fencing, fuel, eawlogs, railway ties,' 
and building. Some pine is reported in the Township of Lobo. 

Makket Faoiutiks. 

Middlesex has excellent markets within easy reach of every farmer. The county ie 
traversed by the Grand Trunk, the Great Western, the Canada Southern, the London 
and Port Stanley, and the London, Huron and Bruce Railways. In addition there are 
eacellent concession roads. 

Local Industbies. 

There are forty-one cheese factories in the county, and in addition to ordinary 
industries attendant on a farming population, there are three saw mills, one flax mill, 
two woollen mills, one stave factory, and one tile -yard. The grazing of cattle for expor- 
tation to England is rapidly developing into an important industry. The oil works of 
Middlesex are very extensive, and not only do they supply a large proportion of the home 
markets, but considerable quantities are shipped to Europe. London has a large 
esttiblishment for the manufacture of railway oars, and several furniture factories. It 
has, also, one of the largest breweries in the Dominion. 



Population. 

The population of Middlesex (including London), according to the census of 1871. 
was 82,595. The population of Loudon, according to a late return, ie about 20,000. 

Mechanics, Fabm Labourers and Domestic Servants. 

There is a call for labourers during the summer months, but the demand for 
domestics is limited. Labourers are paid from $12 to ii20 per month with board ; 
women servants from $4 to $7 per month. 




342 



m 



■t'i 




Municipal Statistics. 

Middlesex : Number of acres assessed, 758,235 ; number of rate-payera assessed, 
16,648. Assets : Assessed value of real estate, $22,079,684 ; personal property, $855,- 
937; taxable income, $33,880; arrears of taxes, $82,190; other assets, $265,186- 
making a grand total of $23,316,877. Liabilities : Corporation debentures, $497,484 • 
mterest overdue, $10,602 ; other liabilities, $75,405 ; in all $583,491. The total revenue 
for all purposes and from all sources is reported to be $412,279. Loudon : Number of 
acres assessed, 1252^ ; number of rate-payers, 5,700 ; assessed value of real estate, 
$7,291,880; assessed value of personal property, $1,838,200 ; taxable income, $349,280: 
arrears of taxes, $175,382 ; other assets, $1,171,701 ; in all $10,326,443. Liabilities: 
Corporation debentures, $989,755 ; principal amount due to the municipal loan fund, 
$516,643 ; other liabilities, $102,790 ; in all $1,609,188. The total revenue for all pur- 
poses and from all sources amounted, according to the last official returns, to $308,653. 

Fruit Colxube. 

All the varieties of fruit grown in Ontario flourish in Middlesex, with the excep- 
tion of peaches, apricots, nectarines, and quinces. The yield of apples, pears, and 
plums IS abundant and profitable. Grape culture is prosecuted to a considerable extent, 
but as yet there is not a sufficient quantity raised to supply tho home market. All the 
smaller descriptions of fruit are cultivated more or less succesaioliy. 




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About 
reraainiiig a 



COUNTY OF NORFOLK. 



Omittii 
about sever 
listing prini 



!' ! 



Settlement. 

The first, settlers entered the Township of Walsinpham in 1791, and between ihst 
year and 1796, the Townships of Woodhouse, Cliarlotteville, Windham and Towri-'«rt(?, 
were entered. The last two townships occupied— Middleton and Honght )n — were en- 
tered in 1810 and 1820. It is remarkable that the first township entered is reported 
not yet wholly settled. Waisingham is occupied to the extent of 90 per cent., 
Houghton about 87 per cent., and j\Iiddleton 85 per cent. The four townships 
settled took, on an average, 77 years to complete the process. The Canada Com- 
pany holds a considerable acreage of uncleared land in Houghton, a fact which may 
account for some tardiness in the settlement of that township. 

Chabactir of the Soil. 

Sandy loam is the predominating soil in this county, thoaghchy, and clay loam, are 
found in considerable proportions, and there is a large percentage of sand. Very little 
is gravelly, but black loam is found in Middleton to the extf.nt of 10 per cent., and ia 
Woodhouse, 20 per cent. The subsoil is generally clay, sand, and hardpan, of varying 
depths. Heavy clay soil has a depth of from 1 to 2 feet ; clay loam, 10 inches to 2 feet; 
sandy loam, 10 inches to 2 feet; gravelly, 12 to 18 inches (only found in the Township 
of Townsend); black loam (in Townsend), 10 to 15 inches. There is no rocky or 
stujy land reported to be in the county calculated to interfere with profitable cultiva- 
tion, but Charlotteville reports |, and Waisingham 5 per cent., so hilly as to bo objec- 
tionable for agricultural purposes. About 70 per cent, of the cleared area is rolling, 
but cultivable ; a Httle less than 5 per cent, consists of bottom land raoJre or less sus- 
ceptible to profitable drainage ; probably about 4 per cent, is swampy (Waisingham does 
not report) ; and about i per cent, is wet and springy. About 40 per cent, of the cleared 
acreage is reported first-class for agricultural purposes, 41 per cent, second-class, and 
the remainder third-class. 

Water. 

The county is exceedingly well watered by springs and creeks, and water is ob- 
tained by digging, at depths of from 5 to 40 feet. 

Price of Farms. 



About 1 
firame ; the 
per cent, ar 



About 
•nd harvest 



About 
pally plaste 
•ore, on co] 
toot crops. 



All the 
of Woodhoi 
cultivation, 



The to 
769J acres, 
average, ab 
less than 1 
12 bush. ; i 
bngh.; hue' 
turnips (ve: 
extent), 84 
cleared acr( 
be over-esti 
cleared acre 
and for the 
ing, but stc 
ing rapid p: 



Farms are obtainable at various prices, according to the quality of the land, the 
nature of the improvements, and the character of the dwellings and outbuildings. A 
first-class farm can be got at from $35 to $65 per acre ; second-class, $20 to $50 per 
acre ; and third-class, $4 to $20 per acre. Farms can be leased at from $2 to $4 per 
acre. There are always lands in the market for either sale or rental. 



About 
timber cone 
cedar ; usee 
poses. 




About forty-five per cent, of the cleared acreage iu now free from atumps; thoM 
reraaiuiug are principally pine. 

Fences. 

Omitting the Township of Woodhouse. which makes no return in this respect, 
about seventy-three per cent, of the farms in Norfolk are under first-class fence, con- 
sisting principally of rails, boards, and wire. 

Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About forty- seven per cent, of the farm dwellings are of brick, stone, or first-olasa 
frame ; the remainder are log, or of inferior frame. Of the outbuildings, about seventy 
per cent, are superi:>r ; the remainder inferior. 

Impboved Farm Machinebt. 

About seventy-six per cent, of the farmers use labour-saving machines for seeding 
ttod harvesting. 

Febtilizers. 

About sixty per cent, of the farmers in this county use artificial fertilizers — princi- 
pally plaster and salt. The former is used in the proportion of from 70 to 100 lbs. per 
aore, on corn, clover and grass ; the latter from 100 to 800 lbs. per acre, on grain and 
toot crops. 

Uncleared Lands. 



All the uncleared land in the county, except about one per cent, in the Township 
of Woodhouse, and fifty per cent, in the Township of Charlotteville, is reported fit for 
cultivation, if cleared. 

AOBBAGB AND AvBBAGE PRODUCTS. 

The township area of Norfolk is given as 889,4 18i acres; the cleared area as 203,- 
769 J acres. Of the latter about 18 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, which yields, on an 
average, about 14^ bushels per acre; spring wheat (hardly any sown), 10 bush, ; barley, 
less than 1 per cent, and 20 bush. ; oats, 12 per cent, and 82 bush. ; rye, 8 per cent. anc". 
12 bush. ; peas, about 8 per cent, and 16^ bush. ; corn, a littie over 16 per cent, and 88 
bngh.; buckwheat (hardly any sown), 19 bush.; potatoes, 1 per cent, and 115 bash.; 
turnips (very few grown), from 500 to 1,000 bush. ; other root crops (not grown to any 
extent), 340 bush. ; hay, 17 per cent, and about li tons. Aboijt 16 per cent, of the 
cleared acreage is devoted to pasture, and 7 per cent, to orchards, but the latter must 
be over-estimated in the Township of Charlotteville, which reports 20 per cent, of the 
cleared acreage devoted to orchards. A small acreage is taken up with summer fallow, 
and for the raising'of beans and sugar beets. The county is well adapted for grain grow- 
ing, but stock raising and dairying are becoming specialities. Fruit culture is also mak- 
ing rapid progress. 

Timber Land. 

About twenty-four per cent, of the entire area is still ti'ubered, and the standing 
timber consists, principally, of pine, oak, maple, chestnut, black and white ash, elm and 
cedar ; used for railway ties, lumber, fencing, shingles, firev ood, and general farm pur- 
poses. 




Market Facilitiks. 

iTiree railways pass through the county — the ICamilton and North- Western, Great 
Western Air Line, Canada Southern, and Port Dover and Lake Huron. Simcoe, Delhi, 
Tilsonburg, Waterford and the neighbouring city of Brantford, are good markets and are 
easily reached. At Ports Bowan and Burwell a shipping trade is carried OD. 

LooAL Industries. 

Norfolk has twenty-two cheese factories, one vegetable canning factory, one agri- 
onltnral implement factory, one woollen, sixteen saw, six shiuglo, and one planing 
mill, one sash and door factory, and seven grist mills. The woollen mill (at Port Dover) 
employs about one hundred hands when running to its full capacity. The principal 
streams — the Kiver Lynn and Big Creek — have excellent water privileges. 

Population. 
Aooording to the census of 1871 ; the population of Norfolk was 31,760. 

Municipal Statiskob. 

Number of acres assessed, 876,764 ; number of ratepayers assessed, 9,948. Assets: 
Msessed value of real estate, $8,480,580; personal property, $715,966; taxable income, 
$26,512; arrears of taxes, $18,006; other assets, $6'8,896 — making a grand total of 
$9,804,960. Liabilities: Corporation debentures, $78,042 — total liabilities, $78,042. 
The total revenue from all sources and ior all purposes amounted, according to the 
latest published returns, to $128,044. 

Stock and Stock By-Laws. 

The townships sustain 21,691 horned cattle, 10,190 horses, 20,657 sheep, and 11,886 
hogs. The horses are nearly all native and general purpose ; sheep are generally 
Soiithdown, Leicester and Cotswold ; hogs, Berkshire and Suffolk. Thoroughbred 
sheep, cattle and hogs, have been introduced, and in the Township of Townsend — 
which is represented to be one of the finest for agricultural and stock raising purposes 
in the Province — quite extensively. Stock by-laws exist, but they are only partially 
operative. One report says : — " No public officer is appointed to enforce the by-laws, 
nor is any compensation provided for those who choose to do so." 

Mechanics, Farm Laboukebs and Domestio Servants. 

There is a good demand for domestics, and the wages given range from $6 to $8 per 
moath. Farm and general labourers command from $10 to $14 per month, with board, 
and BometimeB, for about two months during the harvesting season, as high as $25 pej 
monib. Mechanics get from $1 to $2 a day, but the demand is limited. 

Fbuit Cultubk. 



Norfolk being one of the most southerly counties of the peninsula, the climate is 
mild and favourable to the growth of almost every description of fruit. Winter hardly 
ever oommences before the 20th of December, and the summer is cool and pleasant. 
Apples, plums and peacbes are largely growit, aud hx s, leaser uogroo, pears, cherries, 
apricots, nectarines, and the smaller fruits. There is every probability of Norfolk becom- 
ing an extensive fruit growinj county, and that apple, peach ami grape culture will 
become profitable industries. 




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WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

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COUNTY OF ONTAEIO 



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Settlesient. 

T lo^nHT^?^"^ oommenced in the Townships of Pickering and East Wliitby in 1800. 
in 1807 Uxbnrlge was entered, and in 1810, Whitby. Prom the latter date up to 1835, 
wlieu the hrst settlers entered Earaa, the remaining townships were gradually occupied, 
until now (1880) only two (Mara and Eama) are reported not wholly setLlod. In the 
otlier townships it tooli on an average nearly 42 years to complete the process of settle- 

Character of the Soil. 

Clay loam is the predominating soil in the county ; the proportion being (omitting 
the Townships of Brock and Scott, which have furnished no averages) 37 1- per cent. 
Sandy loam exists to the extent of about 22^ per cent.; the balance is made up of heavy 
clay (which exists to the extent of 2.') per cent, in Whitl)y and East Whitby), sand, gravelly 
and black loam. The sandy loam is reported to be two feet deep in Mara and Pickering, 
with a sub-soil in the former township of sand and hardpan. The heavy clay in the 
same townships is from 18 inches to 2 feet deep, with a subsoil in the former township 
of gravelly clay. The clay loam in the same townships is 18 inches deep with a subsoil 
m the former township of clay and saud. In Uxbridge the clay and clay loam are usually 
on a quicksand bottom, varying in depth from 3 to 20 feet, and in the same township 
sand and sandy loam have been found in some instances 60 feet deep. Eama and Mara 
are reported somewhat rocky, and portions of Brock are too stony for proiitable cultiva- 
tion, while 1000 acres in Pidceriug and one-fiftieth of Scugog are reported so hilly as to 
be objectionable. As nearly as can be estimated 71 per cent, of the cleared acreage is 
rolling and cultivable, 23^- per cent, bottom land, and tha remainder swampy and 
springy About 46 per cent, of the entire cleared area is reported to be iirstclass for 
agricultural purposes, 26 per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-class. Eama 
only reports one-half first-class, and no second or third class— probably because a larg'^ 
part of the township is overflown by water in the spring. 

Water. 

Ontario is generally well watered by springs and creeks, and in every township 
water is obtained by digging at depths varying from 10 to 50 feet. 

Price of Farms. 

Good farms favourably situated iire worth from ^50 to |75 per acre, while others not 
60 well situated are worth from $20 to $50 per acre. The price depenia greatly upon 
the locality and the .state of the buildings fences, etc. The sama aouaiderations afi'ect 
the rental of farms which can be leased at from $2 to $5 par acr3. In Whitby and 
Wliitby East $100 per acre is the price set on firs;,-cla3s improved farras. 

Stumps. 

About sixty per cent, of the cleared acreage is reported free from stumps. Of the 
stumps remaining in seven out of the eleven townships, about twenty-one per cent, are 
reported to be pine stumps. 



375 



Fbnces. 

About sixty-seven per cent., as nearly as can be estimated, are first-class fences, 
oonsistuig, mainly, of cbJar. 

Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About forty-six per cent, of the farm houses are either of brick, stone or first-class 
frame ; the remamder are log or of inferior frame. About forty-eight per cent, of the 
out-buildings axe superior ; the remainder inferior. 

Drainage. 

_ Drainage has been prosecuted to a considerable extent in some of the townships 
— m Whitby to the extent of half the cleared acreage. Tile draining has been com- 
menced m Scugog, Uxbridgo and Whitby East, and in the latter considerable prepress 
has been made. In Picicering twenty per cent, of the farms have been under-dramed 
but the material used is not stated m the returr rendered from that township. 

Impkoved Faeji Machinery. 

About seventy-eight and one-half per cent, of the farmers use improved machmerv 
for seedmg and harvesting. •' 

FjiRTILIZERS. 

About thirty per cent, of the farmers use artificial fertihzers— principally salt and 
plaster— in varying quantities. In Brock 100 lbs. salt per acre is used; in Uxbrid'^e 
250 lbs. per acre ; in Whitby, one barrel per acre. Piaster is used in the proportion°of 
one-ihird ot a barrel per acre in Whitby, 100 lbs. per acre in Uxbridge, and in Scugo-^ 
three barrels per acre. Plaster and salt are used, the former for clover, timothy roots' 
and meadow laud, and the latter for grain crops. ' * 

Acreage and Avebaoe Phoduots. 

The township aref^ of Ontario is given as 488,030 acres ; the cleared area as 269 . 
117i acres. Of the latter about 1\ per cent, of seven townships is devoted to fall wheat, 
which yields, on an average in the whole county so far as reported, about 22^ bushels per 
acre ; spring wheat, 20 per cent, and 14 bush. ; barley, 13 per cent, and 29 bush • oats 10 
per cent, and 88 bush. ; rye (hardly a • grown), 18 busa. ; peas, 7 por cent, and 221 bush • 
corn (very little grown), iu Whitby Luit from iJ to (JO bush., in ur other townships 25 
bush.; buckwheat (very little grown), 20 bush.; Potatoes, IJ per cent and 150 bush • 
turnips, 3i per cent, and 500 bubh.; other root crops (veiy few raised), in Whitby 800 
bush, m Pickering and Uxbridge 500 bush. ; hay, 10 per cent, and H tons per acre. 
iiio cleared land devoted to pasturage cannot be estimated owing to the uncleared pas- 
turage having been included in some of tbo returns. Probably about one per cent is 
devoted to orchards. In Thorah and Uxbridgo five and soven per cent, of the cleared 
floroago 18 reported to be under fallow and summer fallow. Ontario is specially ada])ted 
ty gram growing and stock raising, but dauying is also successfully prosecuted. 

Otook and Stock By-Laws. 

The townships sustain 31,927 horned cattle, 10,527 horses, 25,004 sheep, and 12,355 
hogs. The horses arc native, crossed with Clydesdales, an^l other imported animals ; 
the sheep are Cotswolds and Leicesters; the cattle, improved Durhams and Devons j and 
the hogH, Berkshires and Suffolks. Imported stock hti« been largely introduced. A 




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number of breeders and importers of etock reside in the county. Stock by-laws are 
partially operative, but convictions before a magistrate are rare, and oven impoundint- 
^ «f^^om i-esorted to in some of the townships, though opportunities are frequent" 
T^rfn m, ^ Vf^ssed a by law, in accordance with the Ontario Statute, on 7th Aoril' 
1879. The report says :— " No by-law iu this municipality ever caused so mnch excite- 
ment. In the village of Columbus it is strictly carried out. The change is manifest in 
parties startmg to beautify the roadsides." 

Timber Lands. 

About seyenteen per cent, of the nroa of Ontario is still unde ';imber (excepting the 
rownship of Eeach which returns no percentage). The timber consists of pine, maole 
beech, basswood, tamarack, balsam, cedar, black ash, helmock and elm : used mainly 
lor lumber, fuel, fences, staves and domestic uses. 

Market Facilities. 

1 :, ^° ^^\^ ^"^^^K?^ *^'^ ^°""*y '^ traversed by the Grand Trunk Railway ; and the Mid- 
land, Toronto and Nipissing, and Whitby and Port Perry Railways run through or near 
every township. There are excellent markets easily accessible both within and outside 
tne county. 

Local Industries. 

The returns ire incomplete under this head. There are seventeen saw and shin^rle 
mills reported aiso eleven grist mills, four cheese factories, one agi-icultuial foundry 
some woollen factories tanneries, three planing mills, three turning shops, one furniture 
factory, seven carriage factories, two carding millR, two tile yards, and other mechanical 
industries attending an agricultm-al population. In Oslmwa are located three lar^e 
agricultural and other machmery foundries, also one of tlie largest furniture factories in 
the pomimon. There are also malleable vorks, a scythe and fork factory, a stove 
foundry, a tin ware factory, carriage works, and the Columbus woollen miUs Whitbv 
has a large agricultm-al implement factory. •' 

Population. 
The population of Ontario is set down in the last census returns at 45,890. 

Municipal Statistics. 

Number of acres assessed, 485,478: uumlber of ratepayers assessed, 12 447 
Assets: assessed value of real estate, $18,8G4,023; personal property, $1,580 762- 
taxable income, |113,386; arrears of taxes, §29,231 ; other assets, $104,504— making 
a grand total of $20,691,926. Liabilities : Corporation debentures, $285 907 • other 
liabihties, $41,511— total, $327,418. The total revenue of the county for all purposes 
and from all sources amounted, according to the latest return, to $288,705. 

Mkchanics, Farm Labourers and Domestics, 
The supply is about ecjual to the demand. 



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394 



COUNTY OF OXFORD. 




Settlement. 

The first settlers entered the Towuabip of West Oxford in 1796, and between that 
date and 1810, East Oxford and North and South Norwich were successively opened. 
Between 1810 and 1833, settlement commenced in all of the remaining townships, and 
the process was completed in, on an average, about thirty-nine years. 

CHARArTER OF THE SoiL. 

The soil consists, generally, of clay loam, of which the proportion is about 61 per 
cent. Sandy loam exists to the extent of about 21 per cent., and the remaining 18 per 
cent, consists of heavy clay, sand, gravelly, and black loam— the latter preponderating. 
The clay loam is of a depth varying from 6 to 14 inches, with clay and gravel subsoils ; 
the sandy loam of from G to 15 inches, with sand and gravel subsoils. There is no 
stony or rooky land in the county to interfere with profitable cultivation, and only 300 
acres (in the Township of East Nissouri) is so hilly as to be objectionable for the pur- 
poses of cultivation. About 82 per cent, of the cleared acreage is rolling and cultivable ; 
about 6i per cent, is bottom land ; 6 per cent, swampy ; and the remainder wet, 
springy land. About 60 per cent, of the land is reported first-class for agricultural 
purposes, 21 per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-claaa. 

Water. 

The county is well watered. The Township of Dereham reports few springs and 
creeks. Water is obtained by digging, at depths varying irom twelve to one hundred 
and eighty feet. 

Price of Farms. 

First-class farms can be bought at from $50 to $80 per acre ; second-olasa, at from 
$40 to $65 ; and third-class, at from $20 to $40 per acre. Farms can be rented at 
from $2.50 to $4 per acre. 

Stumps. 



About eighty-five per cent, of the cleared acreage is free from stumps, 
proportion of the stumps remaining are pine stumps. 

Fences. 



A email 



_ About sixty-eight p3r cent, of the farms are under first-class fence, consisting, 
mainly, of cedai- and ash rails, wire and pine boards. 

Fabm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

.ii.rtt^v °iXvy-iiV" per csqs, ot tiis itirm nouses are reportsu lO os oi brick, stone, or 
first-class frame; the remainder are log, or of inferior frame. Of the outbuildings 
about sixty-five per cent, are reported to be superior ; the remainder are inferior. 



395 



Drainage. 

best results. ^ towuahip, tUe drammg is being prosecuted, with the 

Improved Farm MAomNEay. 
for setSg ^&t.«C """• °' '^ ''™'" "'» '"P'O""' h>.»»r-=a™g macbta™ 

Fektii.izebs. 

Uncleared Lajtos. 
tion.tXr^*J-£er""*- ^'*'^ "^^^^^^^^ «--^« " -P«^«d fit for cultiva- 





te. I I 



A email 



Acbeage and Avebage Proddotsl 

acres in South Norwich), 10 bush.; peas.Xut U iKnfrd 10 b^^^^^^^ '^''"* V'^^ 
cent, a^d about 86i bush.; buckwheat (none growu.^excSt 350 L^^^^ ^- ?? 

15 bush.; potatoes, about 1 per cent, and 182 bush tin ninr«Co ^"'i*^ Norwich), 
bush ; other root crops, rat£r less than 1 per ceutVand S'bur- ^^^' l" - ''^ 

several of the townships dairying is a speciahty. ■ ""'"^*"'^v» ^ut "i 

Stock and Stock By-Laws. 

T.na/^i?«^T'^'P' '"'*"'" "^^'7^^ ^^'■"^^^ ''''**1^' 15-752 liorses, 28,667 sheep, and 12 715 
hogs. Tbe horses are gener.Uy bred from imported stock-principally Oydesdales- 
for general purposes. The cattle aro grades-principally Ayrshires and Durhamg. 
I *«''.? r ^^i^^^^T-' Cotswolds, Soutlidowns and Lincoins. and the hogs BeT 
Bhire, Sutio k and Yorkshire. Stock by-laws exist, but in Oxford/as in otLr couS 
they are not rigidly enforced. counties^ 

Timber Lands. 

About seventeen per cent, of the entire area is under timber, oonsistine of nine 
jedar, beech, maple, elm, ash, basBw^od and oak; aaed for lumbe^. fenc£g?fi?ewood 
boildmg purposes and railway ties. ' '"""""K* urewooa 



lit 



I 



396 



iiilil; 



Market Facilities. 

Oxford has unexceptionably good markets and facilities for reaching them The 
Great Western and Credit Valley Railways are crossed by the Port Dover and Lake 
Huron Eailway at Woodstock, and the Brantford, Norfolk and Port Burwell Eailwav 
strikes the Canada Southern in the Township of Dereham, besides which the Grand 
Trunk runs through the Townships of Blenheim, Blandford and East Zorra. 

Municipal Statistics. 

■,-, oZ°**^^"""^®' °' *°'"®^ assessed, 476,567; total number of ratepayers assessed 
11,R83. Assets: assessed value of real estate, $22,267,305; assessed value of personal 
property, $1,652,668 ; amount of taxable income, $86,654 ; arrears of taxes $38 554 • 
other assets, $817,764-.making a grand total of $24,362,945. LiabiUties : Corporation 
JS^^*"®^' rl^^^'^^ ' iatsrest overdue, $1,590; other liabilities, $68,888— in all 
$677,111. The total revenue for aU purposes and from all sources amounted, accord- 
mg to a late return, to $308,187. 







Local Industries. 

Oxford has forty- eight cheese factories and three creameries, eight flouring mills 
five saw nulls, two carding mills and three oat mills. There are also several extensive 
agncultural implement factories, a cheese box factory, carriage and waggon factories, and 
a drain tile yard, in addition to the ordinary industries attendant apon a farming com- 
munity. Oxford IS entitled to credit for having been the first county in Ontario to enter 
largely into cheese makmg on the factory system. This system was introduced by the 
late Mr. Harvey Farrmgton, of Herkimer county, N. Y., who settled in Oxford in 186J 
or 18b4. 

POPULATIOM. 

The population of Oxfortl, according to the last oenst*, was 48,237, 

FaBU LABODitEBS AND DoUESTIO SbBVANTS. 

There is a demand for domestic servants at from $4 to $8 per month all the year 
round ; also for general labourers during summer at from $15 to $20 per month for 
seven or eight months, and $8 to $10 for the remainder of the year. No demand for 
meohamos. '' "*««*« mi 



m. The 

mi Lake 

Railway 

le Grand 



assessed, 
personal 
$38,554 ; 
p oration 
— in all 
, accord- 



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ixtensive 
ries, and 
ing oom- 
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1 by the 
in 1868 



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IE... 




COUNTY OF PEEL. 




II 



Settlement. 

The first settlers entered Toronto Township about the year 1808, and the four re- 
maining Townships of Caledon, Chinguaconsy, Albion and Toronto Gore, were all entered 
in 1819. The county was wholly settled in, on an average, a little over tw«nty-five 
years from the entrance of the first settlers. 

Character of the Soil. 

The soil of this county consists mainly of heavy clay, clay loam, and sandy loam — 
the former to the extent '-^ about 23 per cent.; clay loam, 88 per cent.; and sandy 
loam, 22 per cent. The .mainder consists of sand, and gravelly and black loam — a 
large proportion of the acreage of Caledon (30,000 acres) consisting of large gravel and 
rock, and 13,000 acres of black loam. The subsoil of the clay loam is generally clay 
resting upon rock ; of heavy clay, gravelly clay : and of sandy loam, sacd, clay, and 
gravelly. The depth of soils and subsoils varies m the several townships, and cannot 
be averaged from the reports. About 11,100 acres in Caledon, Albion and Chiuguacousy 
Townships are reported to be too stony or rocky for profitable cultivation ; one-third of 
of Albion and Caledon, and 1,000 acres in Chiuguacousy, ere eo hilly as to be objection- 
able for the purposes of cultivation. About 48^ per cent, is rolling and cultivable ; 
about 9 per cent, is bottom, auu a small proportion wet and swampy land, except 
in Caledon, which reports 19,000 acres as coming under those heads. About 69 percent, 
of the land is reported to be first-class for agricultural purposes, 26 per ceat. second-class, 
and the remainder third-class. 

Water. 

The county is well watered, but natural springs are reported scarce in Toronto Gore. 
Water can be obtained by digging at depths varying from 8 to 100 feet. There is a good 
deal of running water in Caledon Township. 

Price of Farms. 

First-class farms can be bought at from $50 to $70 per acre j second-class, $30 to 
$50 per acre ; and third-class, $12 to $30 per acre. 

Stumps. 

About ninety per cent, of the cleared land is free from stumps. The stamps 
remaining are principally pine. 

Fencks. 

About fifty-five per cent, of the farms are under first-class fence, consisting mainly 
of cedar rails, stone, wire and pine boards. 



! I 



413 



Farm Dwelungb and Outbuildings. 

About sixty-four per cent, of the farm dwellings are reported first class ; the 
remainder are log or of inferior frame. About fifty-eight per cent, of the outbuildings 
are superior and the remainder iufurior. 

Drainage. 

Very little has been effected in this county. About 1,000 acres have been under- 
drained in Caledon— one -half with tile. In Toronto Gore, draining is not found necessary 
to any great extent, owmg to the natural under-drainage performed by the numerous 
creeks. 

Improved Faem Machinery. 

About eighty-eight per cent, of the farmers use labour-saving machines for seeding 
and harvesting. 

Fertilizers. 

About thii^y-three per cent, of the farmers in the Townships of Albion, Caledon, 
Chinguacousy and Toronto use salt and plaster— the former mostly on grain crops, and 
the latter on clover, com and meadow lands, both in the proportion of about 100 lbs. per 
acre. In Toronto Gore salt, plaster and lime appear to have been used with differing 
results, owing to the diversified character of the soil in that township, and plaster has 
not, on the whole, been found useful. 

Uncleared Lands. 

"Emitting Caledon, which makes no return under this head, about eighty-five per 
cent of the uncleared acreage would be suitable for cultivation if cleared. 

AcRE>.QB and Average Products. 

The township area of Peel is given as 289,294 acres ; the c'- -red area as 232,887 
acres. Of the latter about 13^ per cent, is devoted to fall wt ^t, which yields on an 
average about 19 bushels per acre ; spring wheat, 9 per cent, and 18 bush. ; barley, 10 
per cent, and 24 bush. ; oats, 9 per cent, and 85 bush. ; rye (hardly any grown), 
15 bush. ; peas, 8 per cent, and 18 bush. ; corn (not grown as a field crop), 40 bush. ; 
buckwheat (not grown as s. field crop), 15 bush. ; potatoes, about 1 per cent, and 84 
bush. ; turnips, i per cent, and 440 bush. ; other root crops (very few grown), 600 
bush. ; hay, 10 per cent, and li tons. About 10 per cent., omitting the Township of 
Toronto, is devoted to pasturage, and about per cent, to orchards. A considerable 

percentage of the cleared acreage is under fallow, and in Caledon a few farmers raise 
clover seed. The county is best adapted to grain growing, but in Toronto Township 
stock raising and dairying are largely followed, with a view to the city market. 



The latter 



Fruit Culture. 

Strawberries and grapes are cultivated extensively in Toronto Township, 
are made into wine by the Canada Wine Growers' Association. 

Stock and Stock By-laws. 

The townships sustain 14,959 horned cattle, 8,532 horses, 17 '^23 sheep, and 6,782 
hogs. General purpose horses are mostly in rfequest, and to a limited extent these are sired 




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{} 



itW 



414 



by imported stock. Cattle are generally Dnrham and Jersey thoroughbreda and grades; 

sheep, native, Cotswold, Leicester and Southdown ; and hogs, Berkshire, Essex and auflolk. 
Imported stock has been largely introduced into Toronto Township. Stock by-laws exist 
in every township except Albion, but they are a dead letter. One report says :— " Cattle, 
sheep and hogs are turned out to graze on the lines, even by well-to-do farmers, and no 
action is taken except in cases of trespass or damage. Farmers will not fine each other 
if they can avoid it." 

Timber Lands. 

About eleven per cent, of the entire acreage is still under timber, consisting of beech, 
maple, hemlock, cedar, white and red oak, ash, elm, hickory and basswood. A few pino 
are scattered in Chinguacousy and Toronto Townships. The timber is generally used for 
fuel, fencing and domestic purposes. 

Market Paoiutiei. 

These are exceptionally good. The Toronto, Grey and Bruce, the Hamilton and 
North Western, the Grand Trunk, and the Credit Valley railways run through the 
<ounty. Besides the city of Toronto, which is largely supplied with dairy produce by 
Toronto Township and Toronto Gore, there are good markets at Bramptcn, Georgetown, 
Orangeville, Alton, Mono Road, Cheltenham, Salmonville and Port Credit. 

Local Industries. 

Peel has four cheese factories, sixteen flouring mills, two foundry and machine 
shops, (employing about one himdred and fifty hands); one large woollen mill (at 
Streetsville), when in fall work, employing one hundred and fifty hands. There is also a 
large red sandstone quarry in operation in the neighbourhood of Brampton. Among 
formers butter making is the most important county industry. 

Population. 

i-ne population of the municipal County of Peel was, according to the last census 
26,011. 

MsoHANios, Farm Labouberb and Domestics. 

Tncre is not the same demand for either as formerly. Demand and supply are 
getting pretty evenly balanced. 




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'121 



COUNTY OF PERTH. 



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Settlement. 

The wbole of the townships in this comity wore ontered by settlors between 1829 
and 18o0, coramenciug with South Eastliopo and ending with Elma and Wallace 
Ssim out of tlic eleven townships may be considered settled— the process having occuj.iod 
on an average sevtntcen years. Tlio Township of Ellice is reported two-thirds settiod. 
and the Township of Logan to the extent of about eighty-fivo per cent 

Character of the Soil. 

Clay loam is the predominating soil, the proportion being about 64 percent. Heavv 
clay IS found to the extent of about 17 per cent.; and black loam, 11 per cent. The 
remainder is divisible between sand, sandy loam and grav-lly. The clay loam varies in 
depth from 8 mches to 2 fcot, with a subsoil of saud or hard clay, with limestone. The 
heavy clay has a depth of from 2 foot to 10 feet, with a stony and gravelly subsoil The 
l)lack loam has a depth of about 2 feet, with a clay subsoil. There is no stony, roclcvor 
hilly land reported m the county. About 80 per cent, is rolling and cultivable ; abou"t 8 
per cent, is bottom land, and the remainder is swampy and springy. About 57^ per 
cent, of the cleared acreage is reported to bo first-class for agricultural purposes, about 
oU per cent second-class, and the remainder third-class. 



AVatel. 

The county is well watered by springs, creeks and wells; alsobvthe head waters of the 
Kiver Thames. Water can be obtained by diggmg at depths varying fi-om 6 to 60 feet. 

PiucE OF Farms. 

First-class farms can be purchased at from $40 to |90 per acre, accordino- to the 
character of the fences and buildings; second-class, .^25 to $G5 ; third-class, $10 to $20 
Good farms can be leased at from $3 to $5 per acre. There is no difSculty in acquiring 
larms at moderate rates. i & 

Stumps. 

About sixty-nine per cent, of the cleared acreage is free from stumps. Of those 
remaining, an inconsiderable portion are pine. 

Fences. 

About forty-three and one-half per cent, of the farms are nndcr first-class fenc 
consisting prmcipallir of ash and cedar rails, pine and hemlock boards, and wire. 

Farm Dwellings and '^•'tbuildings. 

About forty-eight per cent, of the farm houses are reported to be of brick, stone, o? 
first-class frame — the remainder are log. or o! inferior frame. About sixty per cent 
of the outbuildings are superior, and forty per cent, inferior. 



425 



■» Drainaok. 

About sixteen and one-half per cent, of the cleared acreage is reported to have 
been aramed-probably to the extent of one-third with tUe. 'eportoa to Have 

Fabm Machinery. 

and h^rvestSS*^'^'''' ^'' "'''*• °^ *^' ^^'""''^ "'" labour-saving machines for seeding 

Fertilizers. 

from^20o\74o1lt*il?^^'^*'"*'?'°^'''y^^^^ P«' ««"*" ^" ^^ proportion of 

irom zw to 4UU Iba. per acre on gram and root crops. 

Uncleared Lands. 
^,,Ji^^''.'}^^;'^'''^''S^,^^^^^^^^ county would be suitable for 

Acreage and Average Products. 

s,.rJ%^nZfK ^T '1^'""^'' r^" f. ^l^-'^O^* ^"^^' *he "I^^ro^ area as 278,152 
fZ!\. / latter (omitting the Township of North Eastliope. which does not furnish 
tl.o acreage devoted to the several crops) about 16^ per cent, is under fall wheat wS 
(omittnig the Townships of Fullarton ind Wallace; which do not roportl I e p^otctt 
of hay, gram or roots) yields, on an average, about 20 bush, per acr. sprint, wheiit, aS 
10 per cent, and 13 bush,; barley, 9^per cent and 83^ bush.; oa(^ ahoi!t 12'per cent and 
43 J bush. ; ryo (not grown); peas, < i per ceut. and 25 bush.; corn (hardly any grown) • 
buckwheat (hardly any grown); potatoes, H per cent, and 174 bush.; turnips, 2 per 
cont. and 570 bush. ; other root crops (few grown), G50 bush.; hay, 13 percent, and U 
tons. About 21 per ceut. is devoted to pasture, and IJ per cent, to orchards The 
Townships of Blanshard, Ellice, Fullarton and Logan, have a limited acreage devoted 
to flax culture. The yield in Ellice is, generally, 2 tons per acre, with the seed. The 
county IS, on the whole, equally well adapted for grain growing, stock raismg and dairy mg. 

Stock ank Stock By-Laws. 

The townships sustain 42,264 horned cattle, 19,686 horses, 30,337 sheep, and 15,602 
hogs. The horses, native and general purpose, with some Clyde blood ; few thoroughbreds 
have been introduced. The cattle are mostly common breeds, with some Durham 
grades. The sheep are Leicester and Cotswold grades, and the hogs, Berkshire and 
Suffolk. In some townships the stock by-laws are operative, in others they 
are only partially so. The report from Ellice says, <'No person cares to impound pigs, 
yet, I behove $400 yearly will not repair the damage they do the roads in our township." 
North Easthope says : " Only poor people and slipshod farmers allow theb cattle to run 
at large." Blanshard, under a by-law amended in 1880, has taken a step in advance oi 
the other municipalities. It reports: "This municipality has appointed a salaried 
inspector, whose duty it is to impound all swine running at large on any of the high- 
ways in the township. He gets, in addition, ten cents for each pig impounded by him. 
He is further required tj visit every highway in the municipality at least once a 
month. Tins by-law has had a capital effect. Ratepayers look sharply after their stook 
and keep them out of the way of the inspector." 

Timber Lands. 
About twenty-one percent, of the entu-e acreage is still covered with tinber, con- 



si 



sfiug of beech, elm, maple, bass'-ood, black and white ash. 



ich and tamarack; used principally for timber 
tlie present rate of consumption, is calculated 
at from $2.00 to $2.50 per cord. 



pine, hemlock, cedar, 



fencing and firewood. Tha latter, at 
to last fcr about twenty years. It is sold 



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42G 



Market Faoilitieb. 

Perth posBesaes good market facilities. Tho principal markets are at Stratford, 
St. Mary's, Listowel aud Mitchell. Stratford being the centre of a j,'roat railway syhteiu, 
the farmers are afforded excellent opportunities for visiting distant markets. The 
Grand Trunk, Port Dover and Huron, Stratford andEaron, Wellington, Grey and Bruce, 
and Buffalo and Lake Huron Bail ways, run through the oouuty. The county has, 
bosidoB, excellent gravel roadi. 

Local Industries. 

Perth contains thirty cheese factories, several agi'icultural implement, broom, pump 
and carriage factories, extensive salt works (at Dublin), woollen, grist, oatmeal ami 
saw mills, tanneries, a brewery, a vinegar factory, a brick and diain tile yard, and 
many smaller industries. Two flax mills at St. Mary's employ forty nanda ; two flour- 
ing mills twenty hands ; one woollen mill thirty hands ; and tvro foundries twenty ' 
hands. Listowel has industries employing about three hundred hands, of which about 
seventy-five are engaged in a cabinet factory, sixty in flouring mills, thirty in carriage 
factories, and twenty-five in a flax mill. Stratford has al>out one hundred and sixty 
hands employed in machine shops and founch-ies ; about two hundred hands in tho 
workshops of the Grand Trunk Railway ; forty iia cabinet shops ; and about two 
(uudred in minor industries. 

Population, 

The population of Perth was, according to the last census, 46,580 

Fruit Culture. 

Apples, pears, plums, cherries, grapes, currants, gooseberries, some peaches, straw- 
berries and raspberries are the fruits cultivated in this county. Of the fruit grown apples 
form 75 per cent., and plums 10 per cent, almost wholly for the home market. 

Municipal Statistics. 

Perth County. — Number of acres assessed, 525,075 ; number of ratepayers assessed, 
10,659. Assets: assessed value of real estate, $20,105,751; personal property, $825,681 ; 
taxable income, $86,834; arrears of taxes, $269,358; other assets, 828,174, making a 
grand total of $21,875,789. Liabilities: Corporation debentures, $507,570; principal 
amount due tc he Municipal Loan Fund, $157,207; other liabilities, $605; in all 
$725,382. The total revenue for all purposes and from all sources is $149,882. St. 
Mary's. — Number of acres assessed, 2,520 ; ratepayers assessed, 746. Assets: assessed 
value of real estate, $901,520; personal property, $78,200; taxable income, $19,200 ; 
arrears of taxes, $11,490 ; other assets, $1,500; total, $1,011,910. Liabilities: Cor- 
poration debentures, $43,079 ; other liabilities, $10,900 ; in all, $53,979. The total 
revenue for all purposes and from all sources is $80,862. 

Mechanics, Farm Labourers and Domestic Servants. 

There is a mited demand for farm labourers at $15 a month the year round, or 
$25 to $80 a munth during harvest. A few domjstio servants are wanted at fiom 
$4 to $7 per mouth. No demand for mechanics. 



t Stratford, 
ivay syhtom, 
rkets. The 
aud Bruce, 
Bounty lias. 



•oom, pump 
ttmeal ami 
9 yard, and 
two Houf- 
ries twenty' 
Inch about 
in carriaj^e 
d and sixty 
mds in tho 
about two 



bes, straw- 
own apples 




:s assessed, 
$825,G81; 
, making a 
; principal 
05 ; in all 
,882. St. 
: assessed 
I, $19,200 ; 
tics : Cor- 
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444 



COUNTY OF PETERBOROUGH. 



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Settlement. 

The To^ship of Asphodel was entered by the first settlers in 1817, North Mona- 
ghan and Smith m 1818, and Otonabee in 1820. From the latter date the other Town- 
ships gradiia ly filled untd, m 1868, some of the land in Galway was occupied, but some 
of the older townships— Belmont in particular— are atUl sparsely settled, and only two 
lownships(Douro and Otonabee) are reported wholly settled. Omitting the TowLhip 
ot iJurleigh, which makes no return under any of the different heads, and Smith, which 
doesnotgive the proportion of land settled, about sixty-eight per cent, of the area of 
Peterborough may be considered settled. J & t x kuo aitju vi 

Chakactkr op the Sou,. 

The character of the soil in this county is very variable. Heavy clay exists in the 
proportiouof about 5 per cent; clay loam, 85 per cent.; sandy loam, 28* per cent.: 

ll^f' J r'' ''f^- ' ^^''^ ^°*'^' ^ P'' ''"^- ' '^"'^ S^^^^^lj, 8i per cent. About 88 per 
cent, oi the entire acreage is too stony, or has rock too near the surface, to be profit- 
ably cultivated, and probably about 4 per cent, is so hilly as to be objectionable for the 
purposes of cultivation About 60 per cent, is set down as rolling and cultivable ; about 
b per cent, is bottom, lOi per cent, swampy, and a considerable portion-not determin- 
able— wet, springy land. About 21 per cent, is reported first-class for agricultural pur- 
poses, about 22i per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-class. 

Wateb. 

hv ^i^!!n'?°^°T^.if '^''" ^^^T^ ^J 'P""""'' ''^^^^'- *°^ ^^^^ Water can be obtained 
by digging, at depths varying from four to sixty feet. 

Price of Farms. 

First-class farms, with improvements, can be bought at from |;45 to $100 ■,jer acre • 
Becond-class at from $25 to $60 per acre; and thi^d-class from H' to $20 C acTe' 
Farms can be rented at about 8 per cent, on the cash value of the laud. 

Stumps. 

A large portion of the cleared acreage (not determinable, owing to the incomplete 
and unsatisfactory character o the returns, but probably aboui thirty per oeutHTclea. 
of stumps. A good many of the stumps remaining are phie. ^ 

Fbnces. 

r^.J!'°f fifty-seven per cent, of the farms are ander first-class fence, oonsistin.^ 
mainly of cedar rails and pme boards. ' "^""^'^''^t 



445 



Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About twenty-nine per cent, of the farm houses are of brick, stone, or substantial 
frame-^the remainder are log, or of inferior frame. About thirty-five per cent, of the 
outbuildings are first-class ; the remainder are inferior. 

Drainage. 

Tile draining has made considerable progress in the Township of Otonabee, but 
little has been done in other townships, excepting with stone and timber. 

Farm Machinery, 



About forty-five and a half per cent, of the farmers use improved machinery for 

Fertilizers. 



seeding and harvesting. 



Salt, lime, and plaster, are used to a limited extent in some of the townships, but 
in Monaghan, Otonabee, and Smith, they are largely employed on grain, roots and 
clover. Lime is used to the extent of 50 bushels per acre, and salt and plaster 100 lbs. 
per acre. 

Uncleared Lands. 

Probably about fifty per cent, of the imcleared land would be suitable for cultiva- 
tion, if cleared and drained. 

Acreage and A\-erage Products. 

The tovraship area of Peterborough is reported to be (omitting Burleigh, which 
makes no return) 476,884^ acres, and the cleared acreage 259,337^ acres. The propor- 
tions of the cleared acreage devoted to the cultivation of cereals, roots and hay, and the 
yield of those products, are so imperfectly given in the returns as to render even an ap- 
proximate average extremely uncertain. A considerable acreage is under fal) wheat, 
which yields, probably, about 20 bushels an acre ; spring wheat is more largely grown, 
and yields about 10 bushels an acre ; oats (also largely grown), 28 bush. ; rye (consid- 
erably grown), 19 bush.; peas (largely grown), 18 bush.; corn (very little grown), an un- 
certain crop ; buckwheat (very little grown), from 10 to 40 bush. ; potatoes, about 1^ per 
cent, and 120 bush. ; turnips (not many grown), 390 bush. ; other roots (few grown), 
from 250 to 700 bush. ; hay, lOJ per cent, and about H tons per acre. A large pro- 
portion of cleared and uncleared land is devoted to pasturage, and rather less than 1 per 
cent, to orchards. On the whole the county is about equally adapted to grain growing 
stock raising and dairying. 

Stock and Stock By-Laws. 

The townships sustain 17,896 horned cattle, 6,781 horses, 14,770 sheep, and 5,140 
hogs. There is some thoroughbred stock in the county, bat native Ueodfi preponderate. 
There are indications, liowever, ot a desire on tlie part ol the ta; mers to improve all 
classes of sttck. Stock by-laws exist and are generally operative as regards entire and 
breachy animals. 

Timber Lands. 

A large proportion — not far short of one-half of the area — is under timber, consist- 
ing of pine, cedar beech, maple, iitmlook, babswooii, tamarack, bitch, aiid ash ; used 
for timber, fencing, firewood, shingles, bolts, raiUray ties, aud telegraph poles. Bush 
fires have destroyed large tracts, particularly in the Township of Harvey. 








446 



Maeket Facilities. 

There are good markets, both within and without the county. Peterborough, 
Belleville, Hastings, Norwood, Kinmount, Bobcaygeon and Omemee, are most frequented, 
and, generally, they are easily reached. The Grand Junction Eailway ia now opened to 
Hastings Village, and the Midland Eailway has a station e'- Peterborough and a ter- 
minus at Lakefield ; besides which there is excellent navigation on Rice Lake during 
the summer season. 

Local Industries. 

There are several small industries in the incorporated Village of Norwood, in the 
Township of Asphodel. There is also a steam bending factory, where is produced wag- 
gon and sleigh materials which are shipped to different parts of the world. L:on mining 
is carried on extensively in the Township of Belmont. There are eight cheese factories 
working in the Townships of Asphodel, Belmont, Dummer, Otonabee and Smith. 

Population. 

The population of Peterborough was, according to the last census, 80,473; sincf 
which date the following townships have been included in the new municipal County o' 
Haliburton:— Monmouth, Cardiff, Snowdon, Glamorgan, Minden, Stanhope, Sherburne, 
Dysart, Dudley, Harcoupt, Guildford, Harbi»rn and Bruton. 

MuNJciPAL Statistics. 

County of Peterborough : — Number of acres assessed, 514,427 ; number of ratepayers 
assessed, 5,218. Assets: assessed value of real estate, $7,563,089 j personal property, 
$666,308 ; taxable income, $12,950 ; arrears of taxes, $23,062 ; other assets, $3,419 
—making a grand total of $8,268,828. Liabilities: Corporation debentures, $37,290; 
other liabilities, $25,627— in all, $62,917. The total revenue for all purposes and from 
all sources amounted, according the last published return, to $107,270. Town op Peter- 
borough: — Number of acres assessed, 1,282; number of ratepayers assessed, 1,729. 
Assets : assessed value of real estate, $2,291,952 ; personal property, $250,775 ; taxa- 
ble income, $121,300 ; arrears of taxes, $17,568 ; other assets, $3,631— making a total 
of $2,675,226. Liabilities: Corporation debentures, $114,110; principal amou^it due 
to the Municipal Loan Fund, $72,000; other liabilities, $14,512— in all, $200,622. 
The total revenue in 1878 was $69,917. 

Mechanics, Labourers and DosresTics. 

Labourers are in demand during the summer months at $16 and $18 per month 

in winter they are less wanted, and the wage is $12 per month. Good female servants 
can always command from $5 to $8 per month. 



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462 



PEESCOTT AND RUSSELL. 



SETTLEirENT. 

East Hawlceskivy, in the County of Prescott, was first entered in 1780, West 
Hawkesbury and Longueuil in 1800, and the remaiuiug townships, Nortn Plantagenet 
and Caledonia, in 1815, South Plantagenet in 1820, and Alfred in 1830. In Russell, 
the Township of Clarence was entered in 1780, Cumberland in 1810, Cambridge in 
1838, and Russell in 1840. In Prescott, three out of the seven townships are reported to 
be wholly settled ; in Russell, settlement has not been completed in any township. 
Taking both counties, about seventy-seven per cent, of the area may be considered occu- 
pied. In the three settled townships the process of settlement covered, on an average, 
about seventy years. 

Charaoteb op the Soil. 

The soil in Prescott is, in some parts, clay, in others, gravelly and sandy. The 
soil of Russell is mostly sandy loam, with some clay, and cky loam and gravel 
The proportion in Prescott of heavy clay is probably about 17 per cent; clay 
loam, about 20 per cent.; sandy loam, about 20 per cent.; sand, about 12 per cent.; 
gravelly, about 20} pet cent.; black loam, about 9 per cent. There is a peat bog 
of 1,000 acres in Caledonia. About 4,400 acres in the county is looked upon as 
being too stony, or has rock too near the surface, for profitable cultivation; about 
1,700 acres (principally in North Plantagenet) are so hilly as to be objection- 
able for the purposes of cultivation ; about 19 per cent, is bottom, 12 per cent, 
swampy, and a small proportion, not determinable, is wet, springy land. The balance 
is rolling and cultivable laud, about 25 per cent, of which is reported first-class for 
agricultm-al purposes, 41 per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-class. In 
RuEsell, the proportion cf heavy clay is about 18 per cent.; clay loam, 18 per cent.; 
sandy loam, 41 per cent.; sand, G per cent.; gravelly, inappreciable; black loam, 13 
per cent. About 2,500 acres, in Clarence and Cumberland Townships, are too stony or 
rocky for profitable cultivation, and about 500 acres in Cumberland are so hilly as to be 
objectionable for the imrposes of cultivation. About 42 per cent, is bottom, 10 per cent, 
swampy, and 1 per cent, wet, springy land — the balance is rolling and cultivable land, 
about 27 per cent, of which is reported first-class for agricultural purposes, 4G per cent, 
second-class, and the remainder thu'd-class. 

Water. 

Both counties are generally well watered by springs, creeks and wells. Three 
branches of the Castore River run through the Township of Russell, and the Nation 
River and several smaller streams drain the other townships. Water can be obtained 
by digging, at depths varying fi-om five to fifty feet. 

Prick of Farms. 

First-class farms aro reported to I'o purchasable at from ?<30 to l?^10 v.ov nore • 
second-class, $10 to $25 per acre ; and third-class, $4 to $10 per rcro. Tuo rental 
v?ould be in the neighbourhood of 8 per cent, on the cash value of the lands. 



463 



Stumps. 



About fifty-two and a half per cent, of the cleared acreage is freo from stumps. 
There are few pine stumps, except in the Township of Eussell, where they exist in the 
proportion of twenty-five per ceat. of those remaining. 



Fences. 

In Prescott, the farms are well fenced — to the extent of about thirty-eiglit per cent, 
principally with oedar rails. In Eussell, the proportion is about twelve and a half per 
cent. 

Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About twenty-two per cent, of the farm houses are of brick, stone, or substantial 
frame ; the balance are log, or of inferior frame. Of the outbuildings about thirty-nine 
per cent, are superior ; the remainder are inferior. 

Drainage. 

Some progress has been made in drainage in both counties, but, as yet, no tile ap- 
pears to have been used. 

Farm Machinery. 

About fifty-two per cent, of the farmers use improved labour-saving machines for 
seeding and harvesting. 

Fertilizers. 

Plaster is used for clover, corn, peas and roots, in East and West Hawkesbury 

but the proportions per acre are not given. It is also used to a limited extent in each 
of the townships of Eussell for the same crops — in Cambridge in the proportion of two 
bushels per acre. 

Uncleared Lands. 

As nearly as can be computed about ninety per cent, of the uncleared land would 
be suitable for cultivation, if cleared and drained. 




! >i i 



i I'l 



Acreage and Average Products. 

» 

The township area of PreKcott is given as 283,848^ acres; the cleared area as 95 887 
acres. The township area of EusrcII is given as 251,227 acres, the cleared area as SsisST 
acres. Of the reported cleared acreage ot both counties an inappreciable proportion is 
devoted to fall wheat, which yields in one township 12, in others 25 bush ner acre- spring 
Avhcat (somewhat largely grown), about 10 bush. ; barley (not much grown), 21 busli. : oats 
(largely grown), 27 busli; rye (hardly any grown), about 17 bush;; peas (largely grown), 
nhout 19 bush.; corn (little grown), except in N. and S. Plautagenet where it yields 80 
bush. ; potatoes, about 1 per cent, and 15G bush. ; turnips (very few grown), from 800 to 
«00 bush.; other roots (very few grown), from 100 to 400 bush.; hav (largely grown), 
rather less than U tons per acre. A largo acreage is devoted to pas'ture, and about i 
of 1 per cent, to orchards. In North Plantageuet, 200 acres are devoted to bean cul- 
ture, and Clarence grows souio Hungarian grass. The chief products of the e<v.ip.tiep, 
are oats and hay, but many of the townships are eijually adapted to grain growmg, stock 
raising and dairying. 



■A 


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Stock and Stock By-laws. 

Prescott sustains 5,238 horses, 10,354: horned cattle, 12,474 sheep, and 5,231 hogs. 
Russell sustains 2,960 horses, 6,321 horned cattle, 6,081 sheep, and 2,513 hogs. Thor- 
oughbred stock has been introduced to a very limited extent. Native breeds of horses, 
caitlo, sheep, and hogs, are mostly raised, but there are some grades and the stock is 
gradually improving. Stock by-laws exist and are partially operative in the county. 
Caledonia reports that "the by-law is never enforced, except in cases of feud between 
neighbours, and where a party is unable to put up a fence." Clarence reports : "It is 
obligatory on pathmasters to carry out the law. A penalty, not exceeding $5, is 
imposed if th',y tail or neglect to perform their duty." 

Mabket Facilities. 

On the whole, the counties are not favourably situated as regards markets, or the 
means of access to them. Ottawa is the principal market for the nearer townships, but 
Lancaster in Glengarry, and Morrisburg in Duudas, are next to Ottawa, the principal 
grain and butter markets. 

Local Indubtbies. 

Prescott has six cheese factories and one creamery. There are saw mills at Eock- 
land, in the County of Eussell, employing about one hundred and fifty hands. 

Timber Lands. 

About forty- seven and a half per cent, of the entire area is still under timber, con- 
sisting of hemlock, cedar, tamarack, beech, birch, elm, basswood, ash, balsam, pine, 
spruce, walnut, butternut, whitewood, dogwood, soft maple, and red and black cherry ; 
used principally for lumber, fencing, firewood, railway ties and saw logs. 

Municipal Statistics. 

Prescott and Russell : — Number of acres assessed, 525,382; number of ratepay- 
ers assessed, 6,213. Assets: assessed value of real estate, $3,354,506; personal prop- 
erty, $317,831; taxable income, $22,020; arrears of taxes, $10,225; other assets, 
$13,502, making a grand total of $3,724,084. Liabilities: Corporation debentures, 
$23,450; other liabilities, $3,079— in all, $26,529. The total revenue for all purposes 
and from all sources amounted, according to tho latest official returns, to $84,072. 

Population. 

According to tho last census, tho population t-f Prescott was 17,647, and of Eussell, 
18,344. 

Fabji Laboukers and Domestics. 

There is a limited demand for labourers during harvest, and good female servants 
are in request all the year iouud. 



I': 'I 



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5,231 hogs, 
ogs. Tlior- 
3 of horses, 
the stock is 
the county, 
ud between 
)rts : "It is 
iing $5, is 



kets, or the 
mships, hut 
le priuciijal 



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3. 



limber, con- 
ilsam, piue, 
ack cherry ; 



of ratepay- 
•soual prop- 
ither assets, 

debentures, 
all purposes 
4,072. 



d of Bussell, 



ale servants 



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482 



COUNTY OF PRINCE EDWARD. 



Settlement. 



The Township of Hallowell was entered in 1770, and immediately after tlie Ameri- 
can Eevolution the other townships rapidly filled until, in 1808, the last township (South 
Marysburgh) was entered. The county is now reported wholly settled, the process hav- 
ing occupied about forty-six years. 

Character of the Soil. 

The soil is of a mixed character, and the proportions are reported to be— heavy clay, 
18.^ per cent.; clay loam, 22 per cent.; sandy loam, 10 per cent.; sand. 5^- per cent. ; 
gravelly, 34 per cent.; black loam, 13 per cent. The heavy clay has a depth of from 2 
to 20 feet, and lies generally on a gravelly subsoil ; the clay loam has a depth of from 3 to 
25 feet, with clay and gravollv subsoil ) the sandy loam has a depth of from 5 to 30 teet, 
with clay and gravelly subsoil ; the sand is from 10 to 30 feet deep, with clay and gravelly 
subsoil ; the gravelly is from 10 inches to 10 feet deep, and rests on limestone rock ; the 
black loam is from 2 to 20 feet, with a subsoil from clay to limestone. Eocky ridges 
exist to the extent of 10 per cent, in South Marysburgh, and in three other townships 
about 2i per cent, of the acreage is reported to be too stony or rocky for profitable cul- 
tivation. A Muall proportion— about ^ of 1 per cent.— is so hilly as to bo objec- 
tionable for the purposes of cultivation ; 10. l per cent, is bottom, 6 per cent, swampy 
and about 1\ per cent, wet, springy land. The balance is rolling and cultivable. About 
42J per cent, is reported to be first-class for agricultural purposes, 3G^ per cent, secoud- 
clasfl, and the remainder third-class. 

Water. 



Prince Edward County is generally well watered with creeks, lakes and wells, bnts 
AmeUasburg reports that some slight inconvenience is experienced there duruig sum- 
mer, though it has some good surface springs. Water can be obtained by digging, at 
depths varying from three to thirty feet. 

Price op Farms. 

First-dass farms can be purchased at from $40 to $100 per acre"; second-class, at 
from |25 to $40 ; and third-class, $8 to $25. Farms can bo rented at from $1 to $3 
per acre. 

Stumps. 

About ninety per cent, of the cleared acreage is free from stumps— the stumps re- 
maining are nearly all pine. 

Fences. 

About sixty-oue per cent, of the farms are under first-class fence ; the material em- 
ployed being, principally, cedar. 



le Ameri- 
lip (South 
ocesa liav- 



oavy clfiy, 
per cent. ; 
of from 2 
f from 3 to 
to 30 feet, 
id gravelly 
rock ; the 
cky ridges 
townships 
itiible cul- 
be objec- 
;. swampy, 
lo. About 
at. secoud- 



l wells, hm 
iraig 8um- 
ligging, at 



id-class, at 
1 $1 to $3 



stumps re- 



iP-terial gqi- 



483 



Farm Dwbllinos and OuTBuiLDiNog. 

About sixty-nine and a haff per cent, of the farm houses are rAT^nrf.^ ♦« i, vi. , 
brick, 8ton« or first-class frame-the remainder arelg or of inferiorfmme oVff '' ?^ 
bmldmga about fifiy-twoper cent. *re reported first-clai-ie remainde^'are inferior 

Drainage. 

Beareelyany drainage has been effected in this connfv nr„q ;* ^«„ 
any tile has yet been used. ^' *"^ ^' ^°^^ ^°* aPPear that 

Farm Machineby. 

About eighty-four and a half per cent, of the farmers usa imr^rr^rr^A i u 
imes for seeding and hi..rv««fi^r. larmers use miproved labour-e 



machines for seeding and harvesting. 



•saving 



Fertilizers. 



In the Townships of Hallowell and Hillier npnrlv oil fT.n f„„ 
g-ass, clover and peas, but the quantity per acrTiB not r^^^^^^ iTLTr^^^'^'"^ ^'^ 
plaster is used on clover and pels in the proportion of ?nn f£ "" ^°u^ Marysburgh, 
in Sophiasburg, in the same proportion on do^^^^^ 
farmers. In the other townshiy'pS£rus:dTo\S:fer^^^^ °^ *^« 

Uncleared Lands. 

Tatio^UoleS"" ""' ° "'""" ""'• °'"" ™'™-^'^ >«»« « "PO'ted &t for culti- 

Acreage and Average Products. 

The township area of Prince Edward is given aq 220 779 -inrac. +i ^ i 3 
, 167,924^ acres. Of the latter about U per cent. Is demoted to S^^^^^^^^ "' 

grown to a considerable extent in Hallowell ««! q i • i to orchards. Hops are 

large qi^ntities in AmehaS "a^d AThoL '^tS^^^^^ j'^ 

.s regarded as one of the most favourable in the Prov nee It is uirLn .Ti *^i J'w*^ 
gram growing, particularlv barlev of whiol. if «J^I,T i' also well calculated for 

States market! ^Dairying'isSxtenldy prScSd.""' ^''^*^*"' ''' ^' "^^"^^ 

Stock and Stock Bt-Laws. 

A good deal of attention has been paid in this pr.nr,+„ +^ *i 
by the introduction of thoroughbreds! though n some fnlnS • '"'^"''''"'^^^of stock 
grades preponderate. The t o'wnship susLt' 1^2 S^^rneJ attr'sTr;??"" ^'i^t^l^ 
sheep, and 8,524 hogs. Stock bv-laws exist in «1 1,1 f^^ i^ *t '^^ ^°\^^^' ^^'^^^ 
erative-in others tlfey are onlylarSlly enf^ed 5 enfrced ^a't Jf" T'r^'Z T "P" 
"the roads are filled with horsesfcows, sheep etc narHoU !f ^ i J- S«ph.asburg, 
burg the owners of one cow on y are' ^^AZ^'^^^^^^ 

farge '-"^"""^'^ ^''^ °^^ ^"^' '^^'^ ^^^^P «i« also, to some extent, allowed to run at 



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Timber Land, 

About eixt'^-n per cent, of the entire area is still covered with timber, conBisting of 
beech, maple, elm, cedar, oak, black ash, and some piuo; used for lumber, fuel, 
cooper's slaves, fencing and building. 

Market Facilities, 

Prince Edward has exceptionally good market facilities, by road, rail and water. 
The principal markets are Picton, Milford, Kingston and Belleville. The Prince Edward 
Eailway runs through the county to Trenton (32 miles), and there is steamboat commun- 
ication daily and weekly to Montreal. Prince Edward is noted for its excellent gravel 
roads. 

Local Industries. 

The county has twenty-four cheese factories, and there are some woollen factories 
and mills reported in Hallowill Township. There are no other industries, except those 
usually attendant on an agricultural community. The cheese made in this county — 
averaging 25,000 boxes per annum— aggregates in value from $150,000 to $200,000. 

Population. 
The population of Prince Edward, according to the census of 1871, was 20,886. 

Mechanics, Labourers and Domestics. 

There is a great demand for good female servants, but no special demand for 
labourers, and none for mechanics. 

Municipal Statistics. 

Number of acres assessed, 232,949 ; number* of ratepayers assessed, 5,388. Assets : 
assessed value of real estate, $G,823,35G; personal property, $427,726; taxable mcome, 
$3^,550; arrears of taxes, $2,988; other assets, $28,175— making a grand total of 
$7,314,795, Liab'lities: Corporation debentures, $4,900; other liabilities, $1,200— 
total, $6,100. The total revenue for all purposes and from all sources amounted, ac- 
cording to the last oiEcial returns, to $46,197. 



II 



coQBisting of 
Lumber, fuel, 



lil and water. 
rinoe Edward 
oat commun- 
lelleut gravel 



lien factories 
except those 

this county — 
$200,000. 



as 20,886. 



demand for 



$83. Assets: 
able income, 
rand total of 
ies, $1,200— 
mounted, ac- 






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■ j'i! f' 



COUNTY OF RENFREW. 



Settlement. 

All the townships reported upon appear to have been entered and more or less set 
tied between the years 1823 and 1856. Not more than four townships, however, can be 
cultiVaUon^^ ' """^ "" *^°'^ ^ ^"''^'''°' °^ ^^^ land is said to be unfit foi 

Character of the Soil. 

There is a large area of rocky, stony, and gravelly land in the county, which will 
never be utilized tor farm purposes. The proportion, as nearly as can be estimated bv 
the returns IS in the neighbourhood of 84 per cent. Of heavy clay there is about 8 per 
eent.; clay loam, 10^ per cent.; sandy loam, 30^ per cent. ; sand, 19 percent.: gravelly 
11 per cent. ; black loam, 2^ per cent. (These figures must bo assumed to apply to the 
cultivable area only.) The balance is made up of bottom, swampy, and sprinev land 
more or less susceptible to drainage. Of the cultivable area about 9»- per cent is re-' 
ported first-class for agricultm-al purposes, 23 per cent, second-class, and the remainder 
thud-class. 

Water. 

The whole county is reported to be well watered by springs, creeks, and wells 

liiere are also numerous lakes, the Ottawa, Madawaska, Bonnechere and Indian Elvers' 

and several smaller streams. Water can be obtained by digging, at depths varyine 

from five to fifty feet. *' ^ 

Prick of Farms. 
Farms can be purchased at rates varying from 50 cents to $50 per acre, according 
to the nature of the soil, the character of the improvements, and the faciUties for reacl^ 
lug a market. 7arms can be rented at from $1 to $1.50 per acre. 

Stumps. 
From the nature of the replies to question 16, it is impossible to ('raw an averag.i 
of the proportion of land free from stumps. Probably about twenty per cent, is more or 
less clear — and the stumps remaining are chiefly pine. 

Fences. 

The fences are generally of cedar logs, and the proportion reported first-class is in 
the neighbourhood of about eleven per cent. 

Farm Dwelmngs and Outbuildings. 
About five per cent, of the farm dwellings are reported to be of brick, stone, or first- 
claae frame— the remainder are log, or of inferior frame. Of the outluildiugB twenty- 
two per cent, are superior — the rei/iamder are inferior. 

Drainage. 

Under- drainage has, as yet, made little progress in Ihis county, lujd tile has not 
been Introduced. 

Farm Machinery. 
Labour-saving machines are used to a considerable extent in most of the townsJiips. 
In others, they have not either been employed, or are in use to a limited extent. Reap- 
ers, mowers and sulky rakes, are used to a much greater extent than seeding drills. 

Fertilizers. 

Artificial fertilizers have not, as yet, been employed iti this county, except to an in- 
appreciable extent in the Townships of Horton and McNab. 

Uncleared Lands. 

About twenty -four per cent, of the uncleared lands are reported suitable for cultiva- 
tion, if cleared. 

HZ 






1 » 







498 



Acreage akd Average Products. 

The township area of Renfrew is reported to be 985,404^ acres; the cleared 
area is set down as about 204,836j acres. Of the latter a small proportion — not 
determinable — is devoted to fall wheat, the yield of which averages about 17^ bushels 
per acre ; spring wheat (rather largely grown), 12 bush.; barley (hardly any grown), 
i9 bueh.; oats (rather largely grown), 25^ bush. ; rye (rather largely grown), 19 bush.; 
peas (considerably grown), IG.J buuh. ; corn (little grown), 25^^ bush. ; buckwheat (little 
growji), 24 bush.; potatoes, rather less than 1 per cent, and about 153 bush. ; turnips 
(few grcwn), 822^ bush.; other root crops (few grown), 233 bush.; hay (largely grown), 
about 1 ton per acre, (Some townships return i a ton, and the To\Y}iship of Head re- 
turns 3 tons.) A large proportion of the cleared acreage is devoted to pasture, and 
ratlier less than ^ of 1 per cent, to orchards. On the whole, the county is equally well 
adapted to stock raising, grain growing, or dairying, but in some townships— Grattan 
for example — stock raising is mostly followed on account of the land being ill adapted 
for grain crops. 

Stock and Stock By-Laws. 

The Townships sustain 22,372 horned cattle, 6,889 horses, 25,309 sheep, and 8,781 
hogs (omitting the Township of Bagot, which returns no hogs). The common breeds 
of stock are generally raised, but some townships are importing good stallions, bulls, 
and rams, and the breeds Avill, consequently, improve. Stock by-laws exist in most of 
the townships, but they are only partially cpfirative. McNab Township reports that 
"beyond using them as threr.ts, the by-laws are of no use whatever." 

Timber Lands. 

About forty-six per cent, of the entire arc i is still timbered. Bed and white pine 
feiis^iS in large quantities. There is also an abundant supply of ash, elm, maple, bass- 
wood, spruce, cedar, tamarack, balsam, poplar, beech and hemlock. Lumbering is 
extensively carried on for exportation to European and American markets. The hard- 
woods are chiefly used for fuel, and cedar for fencing. 

Market Facilities. 

Renfrew has good markets at Pembroke, Arnprior, Renfrew Village, and Cobden, a 
station on the Canada Central Railway, but a large part of the farming po])Uiation sell 
all their spare produce to lumbermen, and depend wholly on that industry. Ottawa 
and Montreal are easily reached by railway all the year round, and by the Ottawa Riv«»* 
in summer. 

Local Industries. 

Ihere are a woollen factory in Admaston ; saw and grist mills and a cloth factory in 
Bromley; iron foundries, two steam cabinet factories, a woollen mill, three grist and 
two saw mills, two axe factories, a planing mill and sash factory, and a cheese factory 
in the village of Renfrew ; some steam mills, a woollen factory and two foundries in 
the Town of Pembroke ; and a carding mill, two grist and two saw mills in Wilberforce. 
Lnmberinsj; is looked upon as the great industry of the county, but it is carried on 
almost wholly by outsiders. 

Population. 

The population of Renfrew was, according to the last census, 27,977. 

Municipal Statistics. 

Number of acres assessed, 734,524 ; number of ratei)ayers assessed, 7,111. Assets: 
assessed value of voal estate, $3,383,140; personal property, §479,100; taxable income, 
4d2.8Go ; airears of taxes, $30,379 ; other assets, $38,123 — making a grand total of 
$3,903,073. Liabilities : Corporation debentures, 8102,459 ; principal amoiuit due the 
Municipal Loan Fund, $.5,000; otlier liabilities, $12,245 — in all, fs 179,704. The tutu] 
revenue for all purposes and from all sources amounted, according to the last returns, 
to $110,295. 






J I 



the cleared 
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af Head re- 
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521 



COUNTY OF SIMCOE. 



Settlement. 



Teoumseth, one of the three most southerly townships was enterpd in iftin wr^.i- 
Gmlhmbury m 1820. and Adjala in 1825. Molt of the t!.wnshps? except tho^^^^ 
now form part of the electoral district of Muskoka. but which ai^estiU retained in Sim 
r^irLl^'^'TP"^ ^""'^'f'' '''' ^^'^••'^''ly ^^'^ settled, but on^y two (£rand We^; 

IZ^^rK^'' ?P"'"^ ^' ^' ^^'^"y '''^^'^- I^ Essa, the iKoce^of eettlemeut wa 
completed m twenty-one years ; in West GwilUmbmy, in abou forty yeaS 



Character of the Son,. 

TT.a-P^^J loam, sandy loam, and sand, are the predominating soils in this countv 
Heavy clay exists to the extent of about 9 per cent , and is ffenerallv severa Lr^P^^' 
with a clay subsoil ; clay loam. 24J per ceit. and f^om 1 o^lO feetVer^ h^^ 

iUTtd^rnlVaneT'nf 'T. ' \'- ^f '''^' with"c\ 'r kTel at^ti 
Biiusous , ana sand, ^4g per cent, and irom 6 mches to an unascertained dpnfb wlfl, 

rrf >f f '^'.'- Tl^e remainder is about equally divisible betweergrai and bk^ 
tZ\T \ ^"^^'^'' ?^ r'^^Py '''^''''^'- ^^"^t 16 per cent, of the area is repSed 
to be too stony or rocky for profitable cultivation, and a lesser acreaffe-not detennina 
able, but probably about 6 per cent.-is so hilly as to be objectionabfe fofthe ««; 
of cultivation. About 9^ per cent, is bottom, G per cent swampy and 5 nor pJntT.f 
spruigy lana. The remainder-about 57 per ceJt.-is roSJ^Sd culttnll Of f? ' 
cultivable area about 20 per cent.-so far as can be judged Ty the Jetm'fs which Ire 
mcomplete and m some cases otherwise unsatisfactory-may L set dow^a. fir ? cC 
for agricultui-al purposes. 88^ per cent, second-class, and the^remaSder Third ck 



Water. 

.ht,.ini?°r J" ^.'"''■f y \f ^at^.'-e^ by springs, creeks m5. wells, and watvt can la 
obtained by diggmg, at depths varying from two to one hundred and tv7euty feel 

PaioE OF Farms. 

Stumps, 

«1«„/V^''"P°^^^^A^ to state, even approximately, the proportion of the land in Simcoe 
clear of stumps One to wnsh.p- Adjala- rep .rts seven-eighths clear ; anotlier^-EsTa- 
two-th-xdfl, while other townships either report a large proportion stumpy, or state that 



I 



1 V^'f 





1 I 



V4 I 



522 



no laml is entirely free from stumrs ; two townships say that it is irapossihle or too 
dimcult to answer tlie question. The only thing clear al)out tlie returns is that stumps 
remain m the laud to a considerable extent, and that most of them are pine. 

Fences. 

Some of the reports on the fences nro similarly unsatisfactory and misleading, but 
m fourteen out of the twenty-four municipahties, the average number of farms under 
hrst-class fence is about thirty- two per cent.— the material employed being cedar posts 
and rails and pine boards. 




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Fabm Dwellings and Outbuildings, 

About sixteen and a half per cent, of the farm buildings are either of briclr, stone 
or first-class frame ; the remainder are log or of inferior frame. Of the outbuildings 
about tweuty-six and a half per cent, are superior ; the remainder inferior. 



Drainaos. 



it is 



Under-drainage has 
gaining in favour. 



mado little progress in this county, but in some townships 
, . ", -^ . T „ ^" ^^^^^ Gwillimbury, about one-half of tlie farma are tile 
drained, and in Innislil and Tecumseth, one-tenth. Fifteen out of tbo twenty-four 
municipahties have not, as yet, made a commencement. 



Fabh Machinebt, 

In fifteen out of the twenty-four townships about fifty-one per cent, of the farm- 
ers use improved labour-saving machines. In the remaining townships they aro used 
to a small extent. In the Muskoka townships, tliey have not yet been found avail- 
able, owing to the clearings not being free from stumps. 

FlSBTILISIERa, 

In the older townships, salt and plaster are employed to a coneiderable extent in 
the proportion of from lUO to 120 lbs. per acre. Plaster on clover, meadow land and 
roots, ard salt principally on cereals. 

Uncleared Lands. 

Taking into consideration the uncertain character of some of the returns, it is pro- 
bable that about thirty -nine per cent, of the uncleared land in Simcoe would be suitable 
for cultivation, if cleared. 

AoHEAeB AND AvEBAOE PbODOOTS, 

Omitting the Township of Monok, which makes no return, and including the Town- 
bhips of Cardwell. Ilumphrev. Muskoka. MorriBn.. W-t^ Wno-l "-.l M-dc" -' " ! 

IoT« ^'.'hlf l"^9n'"ot'r^ district of Muskoka the township area of'simcoe islev^i 
to be about l,.J20,o2a acres, and the cleared area about 4G9,5G5 acres Of the latter 
as nearly as can be estimated, about 8 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, which 



523 



HI 



oBsible or too 
s that stumjJB 



isleading, bnt 

farms untler 

; cedar posts 



little sowi,), i„a 17 busli. ; peas/Spcr tit and 20*1 n.hL,^'' "TA' '^'' <y'"'-' 

orohari. (I. .om, t.,w„,hip. .11 tlfe uod^rcj kuT/Sdtr IL 1 "SLS'll ^ 

townslups are best adapted to grain yrowin-' h)articiih.rlv ^u^n^ \i'^ Most oi tlie 
to mixed liusbaudry, stock railg ^ulZ^inT ^ wheat)-otiiers are adapted 



briclr, stone, 
outbuildings 



18 townships 
irma are tile 
I twenty-four 



of the farm- 

iey aro used 

found avail- 



Stock and Stock By-Laws. 

i,^J';ircSrcrtiitaL^':i^'^.r;i\^.Y 

:"j;.:r ^f Sis jr ^-xts .^^^sSBI «S 

Timber Lands. 

It is impossible to glean from the returns the total acreage under timber hnf T,ro 
bably, over one-half of the entu-e county area is under maple! berchZ'bastood' 

rtf' • T''- ^T^''^'^ f '^^'•' ^'^^^'^^' '^^^«^' ^'^' ^-^d oak. Lumb r n;^'opera^^^^^^^^^ 
are very extensively earned on in several of the townships, and there is a krS amZt 
ol business done m hemlock bark (which is largely used within the ro.n!v«nTn 
exported for taumng purposes), an^d in railway tieJ, telegraph poles ndeSes"' Th 
hardwoods are principally used for fuel, and the soft woods for building and fencing. 



jle extent in 
ow land and 



•ns, it is pro- 
d be Buitable 



Mauket Facilities.' 

TbesG are on the whole good, thougli some townships are at a disadvantage from 
want o{ railway cumuiunication, particularly tliose in the Muskoka DisS north S 
(xraveiihurst, the pn^seiit terminus of the Northern Eailway. Simcoe pioper Ts weH 
served by brandies of the same road, an,^ by the Midland, the LmX^and North- wIst 
ern and North Suncoe roads. There are also tolerabl v good concession roads and e cce 

eiit markets are lound m nearly every towiisiiip. The Township of Humphrey r'o.ortstha 
can consume all it can raise, while the farmers of other townships rely alS Xlly on 

he lumbermen for tlie sale of farm produce. The county has .-ood water commm e t^o,? 
bounded as it is by Lakes Si.ncoe and Coucliiching, Noiawas.ga Sa^a E^ S^^^^^^ 
tion from the Georgian JJay and the liiver aevern. " iiiuenta 



i-i i 



ig the Town- 
:dcr;i, which 
> is reported 
)f the latter, 
'heat, which 



LooAL Industries. 

Tl.n,^"'^''"/'"° *i^™of^t wholly confined to lumbering and to the hemlock bark trada 

J'1T\^'''''''''\'7''''^ '^'T ^'''' •"'"«' ^'^'"^ «^""Sle mills, several saw m is fot 
cheese factories, pail, broom and glove factories, a lath mill, and two woollen mi I'sL 
the eouuty. At Beeton. in Tecumseth, bee-farming is carr ed on oTi a large sca^e 



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Population. 

84.247^'" K^*i!?M !^' "^"°^°'P*^ <^''"°*y of Simcoe was, according to the last census 
t)4^247. Mono and Mulmur are now incorporated in the new Coun</of Duflerin. 

AIdnxcipal Statistics. 

/Tumber jf acres assessed, 1,271,714; nnraber of ratepayers assessed 17 89f5 
^ssets: assessed value of real estate, $15,750,630; personal property. So 339^ W 

total of 817,114 292. Liabilities: Corporation debentures, $371,525 ; interest overdue 
$723 ; other habihties, $813.834-in all, $685,582. The total revenu'e foral purpol' 
and from all sources amounted, according to the last returns, to $297,682. 



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),339 ; taxa- 
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540 



STORMONT, DUNDAS AND GLENGARRY. 



Settlement. 



These counties wore all entered, and to a larj^o ext.-iit sottlod, to-svards the close of 
the last century, by United Empire Loyalists, who left JIow York and other States after 
tho Kevolution. The Town and Tt)wnship of Cornwall, in Stormont, were both entered 
in the year of the Declaration of Independence, and are among the oldest settled por- 
tions of Ontario, Osnabruck was entered in 1784, and is now, liko Cornwall, nearly all 
settled • the remaining Townships of Finch and Roxborongh were entered later, and a small 
proportion of the former, and about one-fourth of the latter still remain unsettled. 
William.shur", in Dundas, was entered in 1784, and the remaining townships somewhat 
later The county is nearly all settled, but of the foi'Jf townships, Matilda is the only 
one reported wholly settled— the process having occupied ahout eiglity years. Glen- 
garrv is reported wholly settled. All its four townships were entered between 1783 and 
1794, and it took, on an average, sixty-two years to complete their settlement. 

Chahacter of the Sortj. 

Clay loam appears to be the predominating soil in oil three counties. In Stormont, 
heavy clay exists to the extent of about 21^ per cent., with a depth of from 2.^ to 10 feet, 
resting on clay, gravel, and rock ; clay loam, about 80^ per cent., with a depth of from 
1 to 4 feet, resting on gravel aud rock ; sandy loam, about 10^ per cent., with a d«pth 
of from 1 to 4 feet, resting generally on clay; sand, very little, except in Roxborongh, 
where it exists to the extent of 10 per cent.— depth not reported— but resting generally 
on clay; gravelly, about 21^ per cent., with a depth of from 1 to 5 feet, resting gen- 
erally on gravel and hardpan ; and black loam, about 18^ per cent, (principally m Osna- 
bruck, which reports it as "deep vegetable," with a clay subsoil). About 1,000 acres 
in Finch, and one-twentieth part of Roxborough, are reported too stony or rocky for 
profitable cultivation ; none is so hilly as to be objectionable; one-Vialfin Co-nwali, and 
75 per cent, in Osnabruck, is rolling and cultivable ; about one-sixth in Cornwall, and 
one-fifth in Osnabruck, are bottom lands ; about one-sixth in Cornwall, one-twentieth 
in Osnabruck, and one-fifth in Roxborough, are swampy ; and one-sixth in Co»nwal!, 
wet springy land. In Dundas, heavy blue clay exists to the extent of about 18 per 
cent , with a depth of from 2 to 8 feet, resting on clay, sand or rock ; clay loam, about 
88 per cent., with a depthof from 15 inches to 4 feet, and resting on clay and liar, Ipan; sandy 
loam about 12 per ce'nt., with a depth of from 1 5 inches to 4 feet, and resting on sand, 
clav 'and hardpan ; sand, about 3 per cent., with a depth of from 2 to 3 feet, resting on 
clay' and hardpan subsoil ; gravelly, about 33 per cent., with a depth of from 1 to 4 feet, 
resting on clay and hardpan subsoil; black loam, about 8 per cent., about 1 foot m 
depth, with clay, sand, and hardpan subsoil. An inappreciable proportion or the Ian 1 
ie too stony or rocky to be profitably cultivated, none is so hilly as to be objectionable. 
about one-half of Matilda and one-fourth of Mountain is rolling and cultivable, about 30 
per cent, is bottom, and 10 per cent, swampy land. In Glengarry (omitting Kenyon, 
which leaves question 5 unanswered,), heavy clay exists to the estent ol about 15 per 
cent.; clay loam, 24 per cent; sandv loam, 16 per cent. ; sand, 12^ per cent, (in Lochiel 
only) ; gravelly, 30 per cent. ; black loam, 11 per cent. About 2.^ per cent, of all foiic 
towns'hips is reported too stony or rocky for profitable cultivation ; about 57 per cent. 
rollin<^ and cultivable (but this is a« evident mistake, for 44 ^ per cent, is also re- 
ported to be flat or bottom land,), about 11^ per «ent. swampy, and a small proportion 
(under 2 per cent.) wet, springy land. On an average of the three counties aouut 3Si 
per cent, of the acreage may be comsideBed first-olass for agricultural purposes, 36f 
eecond-class, and the remainder third-class. 



647 



RRY. 



the close of 
Statea after 
loth entered 
settled por- 
11, nearly all 
, and a small 
11 unsettled. 
)s somewhat 
is the only 
larfl. Glen- 
en 1783 and 
nt. 



'n Stormont, 
JHolOfeet, 
jpth of from 
?ith a depth 
Roxborough, 
3g generally 
resting gen- 
ally in Osua- 

1,000 acres 
or rocky for 
or n wall, and 
ornwall, and 
nc-twenMeth 
in Cornwall, 
bout 18 per 

loam, about 
•('qian; sandy 
,iug on sand, 
)t, resting on 
n 1 to 4 feet, 
-ut 1 foot in 
, of the Ian 1 
bieetionable. 
b'lo, about 80 
ing Kenyon, 
ibout 15 per 
t. (in Lochiel 
t. of all fouf 

57 per cent. 
t. is also te- 
ll proportion 
Lies abuut 3i! 
urposes, 86f 



Water. 

Stormont is principally watered by wells, and the River Payne and branches of the 
River Aux Raisins; Dimdas by wells, creeks, and the Nation River; and Glengarry by 
wells, creeks, and the Rivers Raisin, Beaudette and Do Lisle. Water is easily obtained 
by digging, at depths varying from ten to forty feet. 

Friob op Farms. 
First-class farms can ba bought in Dunda? at about $60 per acre ; in Glengarry. 
$45 per acre ; and in Stormont, $40 per acre. Second and third-class farms can be 
bought at from $8 to $40 per acre, and rents, generally, are from $1.60 to $2.50 per 
acre. 

Stumps. 

About sixty-six per cent, of the cleared acreage is free from stumps. There are very 
few stumps remaining, and of these hardly any are pine. 

Fencks. 

About fifty per cent, of the farms in the thvee counties are under fire'-class fence, 
consisting mainly of cedar and ash rails. 

Farm Dwellings and Outbuildinos. 
About forty-eight and a half per cent, of the Tarm dwellings are either of brick, 
stone, or first-class frame ; the remr.inder are log, or of inferior frame. Of the outbuild- 
ings about fifty-two per cent, are superior, and the remt\inder inferior. 

Drainage. 

Some under-draining has been done in the counties, but no tile appears to have 
been used, except in the Township of Osnabruck, in Stormont. In, Oharlottenburg, 
Glengarry, twenty per cent, of the farms appear to have been under- drained. 

Farm Machinery. 

Improved labour- saving ir achines for haymaking and harvesting, are in general use 
throughout the counties. 

Fertilizers. 

Very few artificial fertilizers are used in Dundas and Stormont, and nor.e in Glen- 
garry. Salt and plaster are used in Roxborough on wheat crops, and in Wiiliamaburg 
on grass, but in what proportion per acre is not stated. 

Uncleared Lands. 

Nearly all the uncleared lands in the counties are reported suitable for cultivation, 
if cleared. 

Acreage and Avekagh Pboduotb. 

The tovraship acreage of Dundas is set down as 237,499 ; the cleared acreage, 
120,731. The township acreage of Stormont as 251, 909^, and the cleared acreage, 
115,474. The township acreage of Glengarry as 287,445, and the cleared acreage, 
188,089.^ Of the cleared acreage about IJ per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, 
which yields, on an average, about 22^- bushels per acre ; spring wheat, prob- 
ably about 6^ per cent, and 11 bush.j barley, 8 per cent, and 26 bush.; oats, 19 
per cent, and 81 busti.j rye (very little grown;, 22 bush.; peas, 4 per cent, and 19 
bush.; corn, 1^^ per cent, and 84 bush.; buckwheat, 1 per cent, and 27 bush. ; potatoes, 
IJ per cent, and 144 bush. ; turnips (hardly any grown) ; other root crops (very few 
grown), 200 bush.; hay, 23 per cent, and 1^^ tons per acre. Omitting Cornwall and 
Mountain, which make no returns under this head, about 20 per cent, of the cleared 
acreage is under pasture, and about onf '^alf of 1 per cent, is devoted to orchards. 
Dundas is specially adapted for barley giu.ing and dairying, and Morrisburg, the 
county to7.n, is famed as a butter and grain market. The Dundas butter is highly 
esteemeu in both honae and foreign markets. Glengarry is noted for its cheese. Four- 
teen cheese factories and three creameries are in full operation in the county, and ten of 
the former are in the front Townships of Lancaster and Oharlottenburg, within easy 
•Kj'^ess to land and water communication. Stormont is well adapted for stock raising and 




548 



r 



r< 



iJllMJ 



fii4i" 




dairying. Tlie Towuship of Osnabruck ia noted for Uie excellence of its butter and 
oheese, which ttud a ready market in Morrisburg and Montreal. 

Stock and Stock By-Law 
Native horses are generally met with, but in Dundas mucli has been accom 
pliahed in the way of introducing blood stock, and in Cornwall a stock-breoding fiirm iias 
led to an improvement in roadsters. The horned cattle consist, principally, of native 
etock and Ayrshire and Durham grades. In the Township of Williamsburg, some 
Galloways and Jerseys have Deen introduced. The sheop are mostly Leicester, Cots- 
wold and Southdown grades, and tlie hogs Berkshire and Suffolk. The townships sus- 
tain 60,178 cattle, 19,167 horses, 87,483 sheop, and 18,568 hogs. Stock by-laws oxipt 
in the several townships, and impouruling is frequent, but convictions before a magistrate 
are extremely rare. Cattle are often sold to pay poundage fees. 

Local Industries, 

There are, in all, thirty-one oheese factories and seven creameries in the counties; 
also several grist and saw mills, iron foundries, carding mills, and three very large cot- 
ton and woollen mills, in the Town of Cornwall, which within a very few years has oon- 
siderably more than doubled its population, and which is the county town of the United 
Counties. Important canal works, now in progress, have caused a largo expenditure in 
the neighbourhood, and farmers are now paid high prices in cash for nearly everything 
they prodace. 

Mabket Facilities. 

Morrisburg, Cornwall and Lancaster, are the principal markets. These are all on 

the line of the Grand Trunk Eailway, and are easily reached by the county roads, which 

are good, except for a short time in the spring and fall. The Cornwall and WiUiams- 

burg Canals pass tlirough a large portion of the river-front of Dundas and Stormont. 

Timber Lands. 
Probably about thirty per cent, of the entire area of the counties is still timbered 
with hard and soft maple, beech, birch, ash, tamarack, elm, basawood, hemlock, spruce, 
balsam, and some pine ; used for fuel, lumber, railway ties, telegraph posts and shingles. 

Population. 

According to the last census, the population of Stormont was, exokisive of the Town 
of Cornwall, 16,954 ; of Glengarry, 20,524 ; Dundas, 18,777. The population of Corn- 
wall is now over 5,000, and is constantly increasing. 

Municipal Statistics. 
Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry :— Number of acres assessed, 771,895- nmnbef 
of ratepayers assessed, 12,666. Assets : assessed valuo of real estate. $13 801 869 • 
p.-usonal property, $1,100,146; taxable income, $72,400; arrears of taxes, $12078 ' 
ocher assets, $28 y92-making a grand total of $15,015,485. Liabihties : Corporation 
debentures, $67,883; other liabilities, $51,000-in all, $118,888. The total revenue 
tor all purposes and from all sources amounted, according to the last returns, to $91 694 — 
Town op Cornwall :— Number of acres assessed in 1879, 680; number ofratepavera 
assessed m 1 880, 1,009. Assets— 1880 : assessed value of real estate, $642 400 • ner- 
sonal properi $48,960; taxable income, $26,000; arrears of taxes, $ . . '. . • other 
fTf'vJl^^;?^ 'J" ^^' $789,280. Liabilities : Corporation debentures, $88,500- 
total, $88,500. The total revenue in 1879 amounted to $23,733.08. 

Mechanics, Farm Labourers and Dobiestics. 
There is a limited demand for farm labourers in the harvest season, and for domes 
tics at all times. Labourers get about $80 a month and board, and domestics from $4 
to $5 a (nonth, all the year round. No demand for mechanics. 

Fruit Culture. 
These counties are favourable to fruit culture, and all the ordinary varieties are 
Buscessfnlly grown, but not, at present, more than required for home consumption. 



its batter and 



8 been accom 
oding fiirm has 
)ally, of native 
msburg, some 
eicestor, Cots- 
sownships sur- 
by-lawB oxiRt 
re a magistrate 



the counties; 
revy large cot- 
years has Gon- 
I of the United 
expenditure in 
rly everything 



988 are all on 
y roads, which 
and Williams- 
i,ad Stormont. 



still timbered 
mlock, spruce, 
3 and shingles. 



e of the Town 
ition of Corn- 



,895; nnmbef 

$13,801,869; 
:es, 112,078; 
: Corporation 
total revenue 
to $91,694.— 

of ratepayers 
142^400 ; per- 

• . . ; other 
3, $88,500— 



id for domes- 
tics from $4 



varieties are 
mption. 



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568 




COUNTY OF VICTOEIA. 



Settlement, 



The first settlers appear to have entered the Township of Emily in 1819, and settle- 
ment proceeded very slowly until the last township— McLean— was opened in 1871 . Only 
two townships in the county— Mariposa and Ops— are reported wholly settled, and in 
those the process occupied, on an average, thirty-two and a half years. Tlie remaining 
townships are settled to the extent of, on an average, about fifty-five per cent. 

Character of the Soil. 

Sandy and clay loams are reported to be the predominating soils in Victoria, but 
some of the townships are extromely rocky, particularly in the northern part of the 
county, where large tracts now under timber are of such a character as to preclude the 
idea of their being ever brought under cultivation. Some of the returns from this 
county are such as to render an exact average of the different soils impossible, while the 
Townships of Laxton, Digby and Longford, give answers so conflicting as to be untrust- 
worthy. As nearly as can be estimated, fully 31 per cent, of the entire acreage is too 
stony or rocky for profitable cultivation, while the proportion of rolling cultivable land 
is about 46 per cent. The remainder is made up of bottom, swampy, and sprhigy land. 
About 18 per cent, of the cultivable area is reported first-class for agricultural purposes, 
80 per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-class. 

Water. 

Victoria is generally well watered by springs, creeks, and wells, but few of the former 
exiet in the Township of Ops, and in Dalton there appears to be a similar deficiency. 
Water can be obtained by digging, at depths varying from four to eighty feet. There 
are many beautiful lakes and numerous streams, which materially help to drain the 
county. 

Price of Farms, 

The price of laud varies in the different townships. Thus, while in Ops $65 per 
acre is reported as obtainable for a first-class farm, |60 per acre in Mariposa, and from 
$60 to $70 per acre in Emily, in other townships the land is described as second 
and third-class, at from $3 to $20 per acre. Farms can be rented at from 50 cents to 
$4 per acre. 

Stumps. 

Except in the more advanced townships, a large percentage of the acreage is still 
encumbered with stumps, and those nearly all pine. 

Fences. 

Some of the answers under this heading are indefinite, and an average can only be 
drawn from those giving a proportion. In ten townships about 40 per cent, of the farms 
are under first-class fences, consisting principally of cedar. 



), and settle- 
1871. Only 
tied, and in 
e remaining 

,t. 



ictoria, but 
part of the 
)reclude the 
3 from this 
le, while the 
) be uutrust- 
:eage is too 
livable land 
aringy land, 
al purposes, 



f the former 

deficiency. 

eet. There 

drain the 



ps $65 per 
a, aud from 
[ as second 
50 cents to 



mge is still 



can only be 
jf the farms 



569 



Fajim Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

frame. Ot the outbuildint-rta thTrt^rtowni™ thnTr''?'' "°> ?' °' "'""'" 

Drainage. 

commencing, and in Stephenson, five per cent ofTlf« f«v^ i ' f "^ ^T^^*' *^°'** 
proved. « does .o. ap/ear, ,y Ibe XJrt°L'etrbrr<,Sn"i^^Lr '"' 

Farm Machinery. 

to the extent oflbont M^irn"e" een" * ^' °"'''°"'' ''°'" ''^''*' *«y "« >"<"' 

Fertilizers. 

root.''.L'd''giL""i'.Z,; ™; To^wX:! T' '^""'^ "'™""f'' »■" --". 

Uncleared Lands. 

Acreage and Average Products. 
Tlie township area of Victoria, omitting the Townships of Laxton Ditrbv and T nno 

ty' ];^gtnsT72l9s; .tt^' r "'^^^' ^^"^ ^^^-^^ whichSt^rnS^iLfo : 

to be' SIvvr? Tn 1 ,; i*= the cleared acreage, omitting the same townships, is reported 
;^ fi ? / . ^ '^ number of the township returns the proportions of the acreage devS 
wlu ^f f 7'" '"''"''■ '■?''^ ^^"•>'' l'^^^"''«' '^"'^ «^-^^l^^^-ds. ^re not give Bailfy sprint 

li:SS;SlffttSSi!ra!in ii^^^ partiCai^ys^mirt. 'Z^l 

Stock and Stock By-Laws. 

l,n JtI *7"'*"P^ ^"«^'^i" 1G,556 horned cattle, 7,906 horses, 17,703 sheep, and 7 976 
hogs. The horses are nearly all of the general-purpose fila..s ; hovL^ battle o], A „„a wV 

He'd'aiTI v' •'""'"• . 'n" *'^^'^^'' ^^ t'--ughbred Sho^tror^s h;;v -fe: A^^^^^^^ 
^".ced, and Mariposa and Ops appear to naking rapid advn.n.e. I. Lhis direction In 

btTawTr.iV'^'^'.Mi'^T,^ ^7^ '''.'^ ^'\^ ^ ■' '"^'^-^^^^-^ '' ^ ^^^^'^^ exten Stock 
by-laws exist m all the older townships, bu. .ey are practically inoperative. 




-II 



I 



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570 



TlMRKR ImNDS. 



.Ml 



Probably about fifty per cent, of the uncleared land is under timber, consisting 
principally of cedar, pine, hemlock, maple, birch, beech, basawood, black ash, mountain 
aHh, balsam, tamarack, oak and elm ; used for lumber, fuol, building and fencing. 

Market Facilities. 

These are, on the whole, good, but some townships, like Garden nud Ryde, are at a 
diPndynntngp, as compared with others. The Toronto and Nipist^ing, the Midlanvl, the 
Victoria, and the Whitby and Port Perry Railways, traverse the couutv, and in the old 
settled townships around Lindsay, there are good roads. In the Muskoka townships a 
market is found with the lumberfrs— also at Orillia, Brncebridgc and Gravcnhurst. 
For the southerly townships, Lindsay, Omemee, Cobocouk, Bobcaygeon, and P'euelon 
Falls furnish good rnarkf-ts. 

Local Industries. 

There are six cheese factories and one creamery in "Victoria, and several saw, 
Bhinglo and grist mills, but no other industries, save such as are generally attendant 
upon an agricultural population. 

, Population. 

Tlic total population of Victoria, according to the census of 1871, was 80,715. 
The Townships of Lutterworth, Anson and Hindon now form part of Haliburton. 

Fruit Culture. 

Most of the ordinary varieties of fruit are grown in this county successfully, but it 
does not appear that enough of any variety is raised to supply the home markets. 
Plums have not, so far, been a success. Fall and winter apples, of certain varieties, 
and most of the smaller fruits, can be raised to any extent in some locaUties. 

Municipal Statistics. 

Number of acres assessed, 709,840 ; number of ratepayers assessed, 7,948. Assets : 
assessed value of real estate. $8,438,528 ; personal property, |550,247 ; taxable income, 
152,465; arrears of taxes, $43,418; other assets, $221,744— making a grand total of 
$9,301,397. Liabilities: Corporation debentiu-es, $378,470; principal amount due to 
the Municipal Loan Fund, $19,000 ; other Habilities, $36,264— in all, $433,734. The 
total revenue for all purposes and from all sourcen amounted, according to the last 
published official returns, to $191,978. 



lil. 



■MiiMBhi 



Br, consisting 
ish, mountain 
fencing. 



Jlyde, are at a 
Midlnnvl, the 

ud in the old 

. townships a 
Gravcnhnrst. 

I and P^'cnelon 



several saw, 
illy attendant 



was 80,715. 
liburton. 



38fully, but it 
>me markets, 
tain varieties, 
ities. 



148. Assets : 
xable income, 
rand total of 
Qount due to 
33,734. The 
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587 



COUNTY OF WATERLOO. 



Settlement. 
Character of the Soil. 

Water, 

bv di^iTn^'af Lnf^f ''^■"■''J ^y '^^ "^'' ^'•^^'^•^ ^"'^ ^^"«- Water can be obtained 
by digging, at depths varying from to one hundred feet. In the Township of Wil- 

one bJnd^eTSet ^''" "' '^'""* '''''''' "^"^ ^""^^ *« ' '^^P*'' «f f^'om seventrio 

Price of Farms. 

per a!ie'baiT/nT„n?° ^" ^T^"^ ''^ ^f^ ^^'' ^"^ ^^^ ?"' '^"^^ (^^ «°«><^ "^^««« $100 
S20to«3S vTvvrl^^ ^^^ *« ^^^' and third-class, at from 

«)^U to *dO. Very httle land is rented. Leased farms command from $2 to $5 per acre. 

Stumps. 

maintl'ntri"*^"*'' n ^ P'' "'"*' "^ *^' °^''"'"'^ «°^^*g^ ^^ ^^'^^ ^""^ «fc«mps ; those re- 
maining are principally pine. 

Fences. 
,i.ti„t''rt"™ r™''' '"','' '"'",'■ f , "'» '"'"" '"» "P"'"' "> I"! """'e' liret«l«»» fence, eon. 

:mpLyd ta til; K„*Tp"o. w'lLf' '"""'"■ """ "'"• ""'°'' '""" " """S '"^* 

Farm Dwellinos and Outbuildings. 

n,. fii/'!]"* '7^"*y-''«y per cent, of the farm dwellings are reported to be of briclc, stone, 
«l,n. f "" f'-ame ; the reraanider are of log, or inferior frame. Of the outbuildings 
seventy-nine per cent, are first-olass ; the remainder are inferior. 

Drainaoe. 
with tnr'^^^ ^^^ ^" ''^"*'' "^ ^^"^ ^'^^''"■' "' Waterloo have been under-drained, principally 

Farm Machinery. 
i^'!,°"5.""!°*^"°°'' l*^*" *'^^^*' of the farmers use labour-saving machines for seeding 



and Imrvestini 






Ifjl 



Fertilizers. 



roots 



About thirty-fight per cent, of t]i(> farmers use salt, lime and plaster, on cereals, 
iind grass. In Wihuot, 300 lbs. of salt per acre is used ; in Waterloo, 200 lbs. 



588 



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Plaster is used principally on clover and meadow land, in the proportion of from 70 lbs. 
to 100 lbs. per acre. 

Uncleaeed Lands. 

About eighty-six and a half per cent, of the uncleared land is reported suitable 
for cultivation, if cleared. 

Acreage and Average Products. 
The township area of Waterloo is given as 805,250 acres; the cleared area as 220,517 
acres. Of the latter, about 1 4 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, whi-.h yields, on an average, 
about 16 bushels per acre ; spring wheat, about 8 per cent, and 9 bush. ; barlev, about 
6 per cent, and 26 bush. : oats, 11 per cent, and 85 bush.; rye (very little sown), 15 
bush.; peas, about 7| per cent, and 19^ bush.; corn (very little grown), 80 bunh.; 
buckwheat (very little grown), no yield given ; potatoes, 1? per cent, and 96 bush. ; 
turnips, about 8 per cent, and 462 bush. ; other root crops, about 1 per cent, and 500 
bush. ; hay, 11? per cent, and li tons. About 18 per cent, is devoted to pasture, and 
about 2 per cent, to orchards. In Wilmot and Woolwich, flax is grown t^ a coijsidorablo 
extent, and the former township reports 10 per cent, as devoted to summer fallow. The 
chief products of Waterloo are grain, roots, stock, butter, cheese and apples. The 
county is about equally adapted for grain growing, stock raising and dairying. 

Stock and Stock By-Laws. 
The townships sustain 25,498 horned cattle, 10,586 horses, 24,491 sheep, and 9,606 
hops. The horned cattle are principally Durham and Ayrshire grades ; the horses gen- 
eral purpose, with a good deal of Clyde and French blood ; sheep, Leicester, Cotswold 
and Southdown grades ; and the hogs, Berkshire, Suffolk and Poland China. Stock by- 
laws exist in all the townsMps and are partially operative. 

Timber Lands. 
About twenty-two and a half per cent, of the area is still timbered with pine, oak, 
beech, maple, cedar, aeh, elm and hemlock ; used for lumber, fencing and firewood. 

Market Facilities. 

The market facilities of Waterloo are excellent. The county is well served by the 
Grand Trunk and Credit Yalley Railways ; the former has a branch running from Gait 
to Berlin. Good markets are found at Berlin, Waterloo, Preston, Hespelor, Gait, Ayr, 
Elmira, Conestogo, St. Jacob's and Winterbourne, all of which are easily reached by rail- 
ways or good gravel roads. 

Local Industries. 

Waterloo has a good exhibit of local industries, many of which help towards provid- 
ing a market for agricultural products. There are twenty grist, three linen and flax, 
one huseed oil, ten woollen, twelve saw, one scutching and two oatmeal and barley 
mills; seven foundries, six stave, one last, one cabinet, one children's carriage, and eight 
cheese factories ; four tanneries, two breweries, three creameries, one butter factory, 
one cigar box factory, and some cigar factories. 

Population. 
The population of Waterloo, according to the census of 1871, was 40,251. 
Mechanics, Labourers and Domestics. 

During summer, farm labourers are in demand at high wages. There is always a 
fair demand for agricultuial and skilled labour and for domestics. 

Municipal Statistics. 
Number of acres assessed, 311 ,675 ; number of ratepayers assessed, 8,687. Assets : 
assessed value of real estate, $10,979,291; personal property, $1,167,670; taxable in- 
come, $124,808; arrears of taxes. $17,551; ot.!)fr np.p.otn, fl.'iO, 682— making a grand 
total of $12,489,947. Liabilities: Corporation debentures, $821,193; other "habilities, 
$18,804— in all, $339,997. The total revenue for all purposes and from all sources 
amounted, in 1878, to $292,483. 



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COUNTY OF WELLAND. 



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Settlkment. 

^-<n^^^ 7-Qn °«*^'' townships in Welland wem entered and largely occupied between 
1 , MJ and 1 / 90 Seven out of the eight townships are now wlioll y setthnl. Oniittin" Hum- 
berstone, which does not report under tliis head, it took, on an average, about forly-nine 
years to complete tlie process. The township of Wainfleet, which was entered in 1790 is 
now reported three-fourths settled. ' 

ClIARACTEU OF THE SoiL. 

Heavy clay exists in this county to the extcu.t of about 26 per cent., with a depth of 
several feet, and resting on rock ; clay loan., .'Il per cent , with a depth of several fe.^t 
and resting on clay ; sandy loan,, 11] per cent., with a depth of seveml feet, and resthi'' 
on clay; sand, , per cent, (depth and subsoil not given); gravelly, per cent 
(depth not given) but re.st.ng on hanlpan and rock; black loan,, IG.', per cent.,\about 
foot deep, and resting o.i clay. The ,,uantity of stony, or rockv and hilly land in the 
county ot a kind to be objectionable for culti^-ation is inappreciable; about i';3 '- per cent 
IS roUuig and cultivable, about two-thirds in Iluuiberstone and one-fourth in Wainfleet is 
bo torn land, about 4 per cent is swa.upy, and a ve.-y s,„all p.'oportion wet, springv land. 
(Ihe returns leave considerably o^•e.. two-tl,i,.ls of the culti^able area unaccounted for.) 
About ;,0 per cent., howeve,-, ,s repo,.t,.,l to be ti,-.st-class for agricultural purposes, US 
per cent. seco,id-class, and the remainder thii'd-clasH. f l > j 

Water. 

The county is well watered by springs, creeks and wells, and the Niagara and Wel- 
land Kivers Water can be o))tained by digging, at depths vaiying from one to one 
num. red feet. ./ o 

Price of Farms. 

In Huraberstoue, first class land is ,-eported to be worth $80 per acre— in the other 

i?n'l. 'J:Prn^™'" ^^^ ^^ ^'^ ^''''' '''^™ ' ''"=°"^^ ^'"^ third-class lan.l can b<. l,ought at from 
8?10 to S50 per acre. Jbarms can be rented at from $1.50 to §3 per acre. 

Stumps. 

As nearly as can be estimated, a],out eighty-one per cent, of the farms are free from 
stumps. Ut those remaining very few are pine. 

Fences. 

About seventy-four per cent, of the farms are reported to be under lirst-class fence, 
consisting principally of oak and as), ,-ails, cedar posts, wire and pine boards. 



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Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

fi.«f ^^"""f «i^ty-f«"r an*! a half per cent, of the farm dwellings are of brick, stone, or 
first-class frame ; the remainder are log, or of inferior frame. Of the outbuild ngs about 
tfty-seven per cent, are first-class ; the remainder are inferior. ^ 

Drainage. 

Farm Machinery. 

ins aS Westing. ^''™"'' '"" *^'' '"""^^ "'" '"'P'"^'^' labour-saving machines for seed- 

Fertilizers. 

^f„J^''f'''i ^T"" ""'"^ '''^*' T ""^'^ "' "'•'"'' townships on cereals, grass and roots. \n 
btamtord, plaster appears to have been applied to the extent of 300 lbs. per acre. 

Uncleared Lands. 

About ninety-six per cent, of the uncleared land is reported to be suitable for culti- 
vation, it cleared. 

Acreage and Average Products. 

n*'+/^^'w*l°''"f ''^'T^''?''^^^''"^"'' ^' ^''''''" ""^ 228,94Gi ; the cleared area as 141,4182. 
Ot the latter about 16^. per cent, is devoted to fall wheat," which yields, on an average. 16| 
bushe s per acre ; spring wheat (scarcely any grown), 10 bush.; barley, about 3 per cent 
and 19 bush.; oats, 13i per cent, and 33 bush.; rye (hardly anv «rown), 15 bush.; 
peas 3A per cent and lo,V bush.; corn, about 8 per cent, and 39|^ i.ush. ; buckwheat 
(hardly any grown), 2.. bush.; potatoes, about 3,1 per cent, and 134§ bush.; turnips (verv 
tew grown), 4i)0 bush. ; other root crops (very little grown), in Htainford Township 1,000 
bush ; hay, 23;* per cent, and 1 ton per acre. About 13'' per cent, is devoted to pasture, 
and 4 per cent, to orchards. The county is equally well adapted for grain growing, stock 
lYiismg and dairying. o a e» 

Stock and Stock By-Laws. 

The townships sustain 1 3,049 horned cattle, 8,203 horses, 14,23.5 sheep,and 7,1G4 hogs. 
J he horned cattle are principally Durham and Jersey grades ; the horses-heavy draught 
and general-purpose (some imported thoroughbreds) ; sheep- Leicester, Cotswold, Merfno 
a.id f^outhdown ; and hogs-Berkshire and Chester Whites. Stock bv-laws exist in 
all the townships, except Wainfleet, whose Council contemplated passing one when the 
report was despatched. 

Ti.uher Lands. 

About eighteen per cent, of the area is still under timber, consisting of beech, maple, 
oak, ash basswood, elm, hemlock, poplar, birch, chestnut, walnut, and butternut ; used 
tor shipbuilding, h >use-building, fencing and fuel. 

Market Facilities. 

Wel'.and is well situated with rc-gard to market facilities. Four railways traverse 
the county, and there are besides excellent gravel roads in every township. There are 



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good markets at St. Catharines, Wellaud, Thorold, Clifton, Port Colborne and Dunnville. 
Tlio traffic on the Welland Canal and the extensive works in progiess, create a large local 
demand for farm produce. 

Local Industkies. 

There are no local industries reported, except a saw mill at Black Creek and three 
small cheese factories. 

Population. 

The population of Welland, as now municipally coustitutncl, was, according to the 
census of 1871, 25,760. 

Mechanics, Labourers and Domestics. 
No report received under this head. 

Fruit Culture. 

Peaches, grapes and other fruits are very largely grown in Pelliam and other town- 
ships. The Fonthill Nurseries ai'e extersive and celebrated. 

Municipal Statistics, 

County op Welland. — Number of acres assessed, 222,967 ; number of ratepayers 
assessed, 8,277. Assets: assessed value of real estate, §7,041,009; personal property, 
$672,323; taxable income, $115,726; arrears of taxes, $3,730; other assets, $1,425 — 
making a grand total of $7,834,379. Liabilities : Corporation debentures, $13,558 ; other 
liabilities, $500- — in all, $14,058. The lotal revenue for all purposes and from all sources 
amounted, in 1878, to $122,125. Crrv oi St. Catharines. — Number of acres assessed 
(iV)t given) ; numV)er of ratepayers assessed, 2,752. Assets : asses.sed value of real estate, 
$3,941,000; personal property, $565,000; taxable income, $172,950; arrears of taxes, 
$21,037 ; other a.ssets, $524,561 — making a grand total of $5,224,548. Liabilities : Cor- 
poration debentures, $442,379 ; principal iimount dun to the Municipal Loan Fund, 
$158,621; interest overdue, $7,217 ; other liabilities, $300— in all, $608,517. Tlio total 
revenue amounted, in 1878, to $275,017. 





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COUNTY OF WELLINGTON. 



Settlement. 



With the exception of about twenty-five per cent, in Amaranth, thirty-three and 

P„ /' /iP'^'J'*'"*- ? ^"'^^'"''^ ""'"'^ ^ ''-''' '^"'^'^'•«' ^«re.. in Arthur, Erin, Garafraxa 
East and Maryborough, the whole of Wellington i.s reported settled. The settled town- 
ships, eight in number, completed the process in, on an average, twenty-four years. 

Character op Tiie Soil. 

f. f>,^^*^. ^""f f "^^ [""^T ^''*' ^^'^ preponderating soils in this county. Heavy clay exists 

lift r r '', ^^°''* ^^r' ''"*•' "^*^ ^ '^'^'^' «f ^'^"'^* «i^ "^-^h^^. a^d resting on a 
clay subsoil ; clay loam, about 40 per cent., with a depth of from 6 inches to 2 feet and 
resting on a sand and gravel subsoil ; sandy loam, about 29 oer ce.it., depth 2h feet 
subsoil sand ; sand, inappreciable, except in East Garafraxa, which reports 50 percent, 
gravelly, about 6 per cent, depth variable, with gravelly subsoil; black loam, about 12 
per cent., depth from 1 to 3 feet, variable subsoils. A very small proportion^not deter- 
mmable_,s reported too stony or rocky for profitable cultivation (except in the Town- 
ship of Erin, which reports 10,000 acres, or about one-seventh of its area), very little is 
80 hilly as to be objectionable for the purpo.ses of cultivation ; about 15,1 per cent, is bot- 
tom about 11 per cent, swampy, and a small proportion-not determinable— wet, springy 
land. The proportion reported rolling and cultivable is about 731 per cent. Fo!- a-ri- 



Water. 

Wellington is well watered by springs, cr-eks and wells ; also by branches of the 
River Speed and other small streams. Water .an be obtained by digging, at depths vary- 
ing from four to one hundred feet. ^ oo o. f j' 

Price op Farms. 

First-class farms can generally be bought at from $30 to $55 per acr.., but in Guelph 
f "^rn^V^'i-A '" ''""■^''''^f '"^^ ^" agricultural and stock raising centre, the quotation is 
from f(.0 to $^0; second-clas.s, generally from |15 to $30 ; and third-cla.ss, $10 to $15 
A few farms can be rented at from $1.50 to $3 per acre for the cleared portion, but these 
are only of a second-clas.s character. 

Stumps. 

About seventy-four per cent, of the cl(>ared acreage is free from stumps. There are 
hardly any pine stumps remaining, except in the Townships of Erin and Puslinch The 
former reports 500 acres, and the latter one-eighth of the cleared acreage. 

Fences. 

About fifty-eight per cent, of tlie fences mav be cnn.sidnrod first-class and the 
material employed Is generally codar rails. Wire fencing has been introduced in the 
lownship of Guelph. 



615 



Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About thirty-three per cent, of the farm houses are reported either of brick, stone, 
or first-cla.ss frame; the roniaintler are log, or of inferior frame. Of the outbuildings 
about forty-eight per cent, are reported first-class ; the remainder are inferior. 

Drainage. 

' Hardly any drainage has yet been effected, though the necessity is admitted. Drain 
tile IS reported as just coming into use in the Tcwnsliip of Nichol, and some tile under- 
draining has been done in Pilkington, but the other townships have made litttle or no 
progress. 

Farm Machinery. 

About sixty-five per cent, of the farmers use improved machines for seeding and 
harvesting. 

Fertilizers. 

Salt and plaster are used to a limited extent in some of the townships— salt in the 
proportion of from 200 to 300 pounds per acre, and plaster of from 100 to 150 pounds 
'per acre. Both agents are used on grain crops, roots and meadow land, but plaster is 
principally used for roots and clover. 

Uncleared Lands. 

About seventy-three and a half per cent, of the uncleared land is reported suitable 
for cultivation, if cleared and drained. 

Acreage and Average Products. 

The township area of Wellington (omitting the non-resident area of the Townships of 
Nichol and East Garafraxa, which is notincludedin the return,) is given as 773,2501 ; the 
cleared area as 439,894. Of the latter (omitting Amaranth and West Garafraxa, which 
report "very little grown" and "not largely cultivated," and East Garafraxa, which 
only gives the yield), about 6 per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, which yields, on an 
average, about 20 bushels per acre ; spring wheat (omitting Amaranth, which reports 
"extensively grown," and East Garafraxa, which only gives the average yield), about 13| 
per cent, and 12$ bush. ; barley (omitting Amaranth, which reports "extensively grown," 
and Erin, which only gives the average yield), about 9 per cent, and 26 bush.; oats 
(omitting Amaranth, which reports "extensively grown," and East Garafraxa, which 
only reports the average yield), .about 12 percent, and 35i bush. ; rye (hardly any grown), 
20 bush.; peas (omitting Amaranth, which reports "extensively grown," and Erin, which 
only gives the average yield), about 9 per cent, and 2U bush.; corn (none grown); 
buckwheat (none grown) ; potatoes, about 1| per cent, and l33A bush. ; turnips (omitting 
Amaranth, which reports "extensively grown," and Ea.st Garafraxa, which only gives the 
average yield), about 4^ per cent, and 4G4 bu.sliels ; other root crops (few grown), 
about 340 bush, per acre ; hay (omitting Amaranth, which reports "extensively grown," 
and Erin, which only gives the average yield), 13_| per cent, and If tons per acre. Omitting 
Amaranth, which does not report, about 16 per cent, is devoted to pasture, and a small 
proportion — not determinable — to orchards. The chief products of Wellington are grain 
and roots — the latter largely used for cattle feed. The county is well adapted fcr grain 
growing, stock raising and dairying. One report says: "More turnips are raised and 
more beef sold in Wellington than in any other county in Ontario. Barley is a sure crop, 
and a great breadth is annually sown. 

Population. 
The population of Wellington, according to the last census, was 03,289. 




610 



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Stock and Stock By-Laws. ' 

hn.^'^nVr^'^'^'.T*^!^" f '^^^ ^'''""'^ ''^"'"' 1''^^' Horses, 47,924 sheep, and 15,625 
fSu.„.l Tl cattle, Durham and Uurhan, grades pre.lonnnate. There are fine herds of 
Galmv aj;s and Devons in the Townslup of V. uelph, which ranks as the premier township in 

r ne^h w?f7 f T K '^''"/?- T k' P"""?*^! "^^''k^t-s of tlie Dominion are supplied from 

txuelph with fat beeves, and in addition large numbers are exported to England The 
ilTZlToT^ clraught and general-purpose, witli some Clydesdale blood; the sheep-^ 
reoort Jv^s "Tn-"'"; ^'^"t'''^"^^" ^ '^"^l *!'« ''^g^ principally Eerkshire grades. One 
S n^?' •• ^ ';"f "^ possesses better herds and more good stock than any county in 

tl e Dominion. Durham blood is largely diflused and a poor beast is becoming a rarity 

WIsTh. T 7'^">'V"P°''*'^«°/ t''°'-°"^'J'^^-"l« ^"^Wn addition to Shorthorns, has 
heids of Herefords, Ualloways and Devons." 

Local Industries. 

The City of Guelph, the county seat of W(;]lington, has large manufactures of sewin- 
TW ^eS have a world-wide reputation), musical instruments and woollen fabrics" 

Ihere aie a so a carpet factory, .stove foundries, engine and agriculfiral woiks, saw, bone 
and oa meal miHs, and brush, barrel, furniture and cigar factories and breweries. Butter 

?actoril 1^" ^' '"'^' '?■' ?'"""^ °" "" ^" ^'^*"'«i^-^ ''^^'- ^^'^-re are seven cheese 
lactones and one creamery in the county. 

Market Facilities. 
comn^If nr*°" has excellent markets, and, thanks to good gravel roads and railway 

and dk . ' r. ''"^ n *°''"''"'' '' "°^^ ^'*^''""* ^'^^'^ ^'^^^^ities for reaching both near 
a^id distant markets. The county is traversed by the Toronto, Grey and Bruce, Credit 
Valley, W elhngton. Grey and Bruce, Stratford and Lake H.'ron, Georgian Ba^, Great 

l-almerston and Waterloo, are ammig the most frequented markets. 

Timber Lands 

Probably about 15 per cent, of the area of Wellington is still timbered with beech 
fllnen'c -^ ^^^l^r- 1^^"^^'^':^, basswood, a.h and balsam ; u.sed chieHy for fuel, building and 
tencing. feeveral townships have no more timber than is needed for local requireufents. 

Mechanics, Labourers and Domestics. 

There is a constant demand for good farm labourers and domestic servants, but not 
much for mechanics. The wage g. , en to labourers and domestics is not reported. 

Municipal Statistics. 

ers a^sse^d' % ^^If"'^^^™^'-^^""'!^^'; "^ f^es assessed. 77G5I4O; number of ratepay- 
ers assessed, 1 0,0.32. A.ssets : as.sessed value ..f real estate, §18,002,381 • nersonil 
^60'o08'' ^'' '''''' ' *"r''' inoo-ne 6138,770 ; arrears of tax'es, $14,918 , othe' al ^ 
«3?'. or;7'" •"'^' ^Srand total of $19 015,605. Liabilities: Corporation debentures 

Ivm V ^T^T!- """'S'lr^if *.° *^T. ^^""i'^'P^l ^"'^" J^^"'"!. *-l8,720 ; interest overdue 
1320; otherl.abilit.es, $25,106-1,1 all, $428,160. The total revenue for all pu.-poses 
and from all sources amounted, in 1S7S, to .$503,870.— City op Guelph :— Number of 
acres assessed (.lot reported) ; .lumber of i-atepayers assessed, 2,294. Assets • assessed 

n ^fsrnfoV^^V'"^'.^^^' P"'""'"'' property, $183,740 ; taxable income," $180,600 
-m all, *2,8o0,190. Liabilities: Co.-poratio.. debentures, $135,800 ; principal a.nount 
due o the Mumc.pal Loa.i Fu.id, $34,020-in all, $169,820. The total leve.iue, in 
1878, amounted to $112,754.37. 



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OOUNTY OF WE NT WORTH. 



Settlement. 
All .Il°™..*f '""fP" »' 'W'.^Mn'y were entered ahout tl,o emiot the l.«t century. 

Character op the Soil. 

fr. ,u^\^''f ?"u^ ^°T? """^ ^^^ predominating soils in this county. Heavy clay exists 
to the extent of about 12| per cent, with a depth of about 7 inchesfand • -/^Sy ^ub 

per cent., depth 8 inches, subsoil clay ; sand, none, except about one-sixteenth in Ancas- 
ter, and about one-eighth in East Flamborough ; gravelly, none, exce^ one-fouVtriu 
WesTS T'^'T''^ i" W-:t Flamborough, and one-tw^Atieth in Saltfleet- ubso 1 ^ 
West Flamborough gravel and sand ; black loam, about 8 p(,r cent., depth 10 inches 

rock? ^'^y ;^- /- V ^^'^ """" proportions-not determinable-^-arr oo sto'y "; 
rocky for prohtable cultivation, or so hilly as to be objectionable. About 6.^ per cent "s 
bottom, probably about 2 per cent, swampy, and 2 per cent, we^ springy iLd Tbou 
59 per cent, is reported rolling and cultivable. For agricultural purpose.s about Sslper 
cent. iH reported farst-class, 29 per cent, second class, and the remainder third class^ ^ 

Water. ' 

..»„l,^'"w °/*^ '' r*T'^ ™?^"^y ^y '^*^"'' *'^°"gh *h«^« ^^^ «o™e good springs and 
creeks. Water can be obtained by digging, at .lepths varying from four to sixty feet. 

Price of Farms. 

First-class farms in F.ast and West Flamborough are reported as worth $70 and S80 
per acre, and in Barton .$100 per acre. In other townships the quotations are lower 
Second-class farms range from $30 to $45, and third-class, $20 to $30. Farms can be 
rented at from $2.50 to $5 per acre. 

Stumps. 

About seventy-six per cent, of the cleared acreage is reported free from stumus Of 
those remaining a good many are pine. i • '^ 

Fences. 

_ About seventy-six per cent, of the farms are reported under first-class fences, consist- 
ing of stumps, boards, rails, stone and wire. The latter has been largely introduced in 
some townships. ° ■^ 

Farm Dwellings and Outbuildings. 

About sixty-four per cent, of the farm houses are either of brick, stone, or first-class 
frame ; the remainder are log, or of inferior frame. Of the outbuildings about sixty per 
cent, are reported hrst-class ; the remainder are inferior. ^ 



G35 



t 



Drainage. 

Hardly ; y draining has been effected, and only in one township (West Flam- 
borough) does any tile appear to have been used. East Flamborough reports very little 
drainage required. 

Farm Machinery. 

Almot*- all the farmers use improved machinery for seeding and harvesting. 



Fertilizers. 

In scne townships large quantities of plaster are used — in ethers scarcely any. On 
an average (omitting Barton, which does not report), about 27^ per cent, of the farmers 
use salt, plaster and superphosphate, in the proportions of — plaster 150 lbs., salt 400 
lbs., and superphosphate 500 lbs. per acre — principally on hay lands, roots, barley and 
clover. 

Uncleared Lands. 

With the exception of East Flamborough, which does not report, about eighty-five 
per cent, of the uncleared^and would be suitable for cultivation, if cleared. 

Acreage and Average Products. 

The township area of Wentworth is given as 272,l90if acres ; the cleared area as 
197,586. Of the latter, omitting Barton, which only gives the yield, about 15^ per cent, is 
devoted to fall wheat, which yields, on an average, about 19 bushels per acre; spring 
wheat (very little raised), 15 bush.; barley, 9^ percent, and 26^ bush. ; oats, aboui .1^ 
per cent, and 36^ bush.; rye (very little grown), 20 bush. ; peas, about ^ per cent, and 
22 bush. ; corn, about 2| per cent, ana Sl^ bush.; buckwheat (very little grown), 25 
bush.; potatoes, about 1% per cent, and 12t"'bush. ; turnips (very few grown), about 500 
bush. ; other root crops (very few grown), about 5G6 bush. ; hay, about 17 per cent, and 
1^^ tons. Probably about 13 per cent, is devoted to pasture, and 4 per cent, to orchards. 
The county is well adapted to mixed husbandry. Cereals— particularly corn— roots, 
garden produce, and fruit, are profitably cultivated. Stock raising and dairying are 
not reported as specialties in this county, though good stock has been introduced, partic- 
ularly in the Township of Glanford. 

Stock and Stock By-Laws. 

The townships sustain 15,860 horned cattle, 8,982 horses, 16,427 sheep, and 7,662 
hogs. The horned cattle are mostly Durham, Durham and Ayrshini grades, and common 
stock ; horses— general-purpose ; sheep — Leicester, Southdown and Cotswold ; and hogs 
— Berkshire, Suffolk and crosses. 

Timber Lands. 

Probably about fourteen and a half per cent, of the entire area is still under timber, 
consisting of pine, beech, maple, elm, black ash, cedar, tamarack, oak, hickory, walnut 
and chestnut ; used for lumber, firewood, fencing, building and general purposes. 

Market Facilities. 

Wentworth has unexceptionable markets and good facilities for reaching them. The 
Great Western, Credit Valley, and Northern and North- Westeru Kaiiwi*ys traverse the 
county. The markets at Hamilton, Brantford, Dundas, Gait and Guelph, are largely- 
frequented. No township is at any disadvantage for want of easy and rapid communi- 
oation. 



M 



(J3G 



Local Industhjes. 

There arc Hovon clieesf factoiioH reportL'il an in operation in tho county ; also grist, 
saw, papor and woollen mills, and an agritultural iniplcnu'nt factory — the latter at A ncas- 
ter. Thti City of Hamilton is noted as one of tlic principal nmi.ufacturinf,' centres of tlie 
Dominion, almost every industry being represented there, and it furnishes on excellent 
market for agricultural products. 

Population. 

Tho population of Wentworth, not including Hamilton, was, according to the ceusua 
of 1871, 80,8by. Tho population of Hamilton is, according to a lato report, 35,000. 



m 



Mechanics, Laboukeks and Domestics. 

Tho labour market is reported to be pretty well supplied, but un opening can always 
be found for first-class farm hands and female domestics. No demand for mechanics. 

Municipal Statistics. 

County op Wentworth. — Number of acres assessed, 271, .'529; number of ratepayers 
assessed, 7,487. Assets: assessed value of real estate, $10,391,739; personal property, 
$750,669 ; taxable income, $71,365 ; arrears of taxes, $20,432 ; other a.ssets, $394,735— 
making a grand total of $ll,6-28,940. Liabilities: Corporation debentures, $163,785; 
interest overdue, $1,096; other liabilities, $8,992— in all, $173,873. The total revenue 
for all purposes and from all sources amounted, in 1878, to $248,812. City of Hamilton. 
— Number of acres assessed (not given) ; number of ratepayers asses.sed, 8,677. Ass(!ts : 
assessed value of real estate, $12,682,948; personal property, $2,191,340; taxable 
income, $592,530 ; arrears of taxes, $272,715 ; other assets, $1,699,127— making a grand 
total of $17,438,u.J0. Liabilities: Corporation debentures, $2,391,964— total, $2,391,964. 
The total r-^ venue amounted, in 1878, to $456,835. 






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COUNTY OF YOKK 



Settlement. 



1815 Th« firlf! P' 'a ' T°fT '"''■^ ^""^^'^^ «"^ largely settled between 1790 and 
One tliirr^A? 7*f ^d ^*« Markham, and the last Georgina, in the years named! 

GwliSurv andlOoSinr'SV'-,?'"."""*^^^^,' '^'' ^^°"* ^.000 Les in Eas 
rTf oofT ^; 1 '000 in North Gwilhmburyj in the remaining townships the process 
of settlement was completed in, on an average, a little over 45^ years ^ 

Charactek of the Soil. 

H^^nv^tl"^ ""^^^l °?*y^*"^' an<i sandy loam, are the predominating soils in this conntv 
ScS an J Z^ '" '^' proportion of about 21 per cent., with a dfpth of from 8 tTli 

ceS if^o'^fiT^^^^ ^"^ '"'^^^^ clay loam, about 88 per 

cent., depth from 11 to 15 inches, and resting principally on subsoils of c av and m rl • 

marl'tTd ^trnt mf '^ "'^^ '. '!?*^^"//" ^^^"«^^^' ^''^ subsoils Vcfay'anJ 
man , sand, about 10^ per ce^t., depth not determinable, with subsoils of auicksaud 

S flfT'J '■ ^r'"^' r* ^PP^T^^^'« ' ^^^'^' l'^^'^' ^bout k per cent., depth from 2 to 
reports 8 0001'"^^ "'il?^"^' '^"'^,""? quicksand. Except in North G^illimbury. which 
ZwL '^? acres there IS no. land m the county which is too stony or has rock too 
t3«it ? T *" ^' l^'-^fit^Wy cultivated, about 7 per cent, is so hilly as to be obiec 
tionable for the purposes of cultivation, about 11 per cent, is bottom 7i per cent 

ofrSr^'^'T ^'^%t?^'^ '/"• ^^"*- ^^*' «™ l'^'^'^- AboS'68 ?er n .' 
class for? • "T'^f ^' rolling and caltivable. About 44^ per cent, is reported first: 
class for agricultural purposes, 33 per cent, second-class, and the remainder third-class. 

Water. 

TTnilo^^^^ w""**^ '" reported well watered bj/ creeks, springs and wells, also by the Don, 
HoUand, Humber, Black, and Rouge Eivers ; in the south by Lake Ontario, and in the 
aZlty ^.'^^%Si"^«oe, and many tributary streams. Water is obtained by digging, at 
depths varying from four to one hundred feet. bs g. " 

Price of Farms. 

$26 f?«l^ntL°/ir'^ depends wholly on locality, soil and buildings, and ranges from 
fi J *!, P ^ '^- .Tlie latier rate is exceptional. From $70 to $80 uer acre may be 
taken as the average price of laud within a radius of 20 miles of Toronto Warms are 
leased at from $2.50 to $5 per acre. ^ur juio. . arms are 



Stumps. 



About fifty-four per cent, of the cleared acreage is reported free from stumps 
ttie stumps remaining a large proportion are pine. 



Ot 



Fences. 



About sixty-nine per cent, of the farms are reported to be under first-class fences, 
consisting principally of cedar, pine and hemlock rails. 



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Farm Dwe inos and Outbuildings. 

About sixty-two per cent, of the farm dweUings are reported to be either of brick, 
stone, or first-class frame ; the remainder are log or of inferior frame. Of the outbmld- 
ings fifty-seven per cent, are reported first-class ; the remamaer are mferior. 

Drainage. 

About twelve and a half percent, of the farms are reported to have been drained, 
principally in King, Markham and York Townships TUe has been largely used in the 
latter township, and in the others to a limited extent. 

Farm Machinery. 

About ninety-three per cent, of the farmers use improved machinery for seeding and 
harvesting. 

Fertilizers. 

There are larger quantities of artificial fertilizers employed in this county than in 
any other county in the Province-the average being forty-two per cent. Plaster and 
salt are used in the proportion of from 100 lbs. to 150 lbs. of the tormer, and 300 lbs. ot 
the latter, on nearly all descriptions of crops-but plaster, principally, on clover and 
roots, and salt on cereals. Superphosphate is also employed to a small extent on roots. 

Uncleared Lands. 

About eighty-nine per cent, of the uncleared land is reported suitable for cultiva- 
tion, if cleared. 

Acreage and Average Products. 

The township area of York is 540,27U acres ; the cleared area is 392,513|. Of 
the latter, about 12^ per cent, is devoted to fall wheat, which yields, ^'^.^f ,^^^,^,'^«'|;^ 
(omitting East GwilUmbury, which does not in any case report the yield), about 20 
buThels per acre; spring wheat, about 13 per ceut. andl2| bush.; barley, IH per cent 
and 25j^bush. ; ^at' 12^ per cent, and 38^ bush. ; rye (hardly auy Bown) from 15 to 
20 bush.; peas, 7 per cent, and 19^ bush.; corn (hardly any grown) from 25 o 40 
bush.; b;ckwheat (in Whitchurch only), 1 per cent, and 5 bush. ; P^^t^t^^^^' ^\«^ ^ ^^ 
per cent, and 103* bush. ; turnips, 1,^, per cent, and 383 bush. ; <'Jl?,^^'^,;«f «^^f ' ^^^^"^ 
1 per cent, and 457 bush.; hay, about 14 per cent, and U tons. About 16 Pe cent s 
devoted to pasture, and about 2 per cent, to orchards. In Kmg 12H^er cent in Mark- 
ham about 9 per ceut. and in Vaughan about 14 per cent, is if^^ttiraoofde^d 
The county is well adapted for stock raising, grain growing and dairying A gooa deal 
of attention is being paid to the former in townships specially adapted tor gr-^^mg and 
,r the growth of cfoier. Fruit growing and market gardening are also largely followed 
4ecially'n Etobicoke and York Townships, where are also some extensive nurseries. 

Stock and Stock By-Laws. 

The townships sustain 27.6G9 horned cattle, 20,230 Worses, 27,984 sheep and 14,388 
J.ogs. The horses are draught and general-purpose, with Clydesda e b ood (^o^^ J^^ 
.ul^,.~v,i,.„^= ».o„n v,o«n infrnduoed and the number is mcnasiug) ; cattle— JJarnam, 
kTrlife audDe;ongrIdesT"sheep-Leic^^^^^ 

Berkshire, Suffolk and Essex. A great improvement has taken place of late years m 
all descriptions of farm stock. 



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Timber Lands. 
Mabket Facilities. 



, western markets. 



Local Industries. 



„, Y °r"'T k'iS"^ ?' ''''"■™^' "'''* '"'» '"' mmMval coimcction with the Conntv 

on inlei^'.""""'' n,a.„ta.l„rie. i. Ne,vmaAet. Some lumbering i7',ScaS 

Population. 

The total population of York, according to the census of 1871 was 59 882 TV,^ 
total population of Toronto is, according to a late return, 77,034: ' 

Mechanics, Farm Labourers and Domestics. 
There is no special -demand for farm labourers, but good hands can alwavs sp^nrp 
mechanic"""" '' '^^' "'^^^^' '''' ^^^^^^^^^ ^" *^« ^-^ round'' LVelTand fo" 

Municipal Statistics. 

County OF York.— Number of acres assessed, 554,887: number of raten-ivPrH 

11,619,402; taxable income, $84,005; arrears of taxes, $24,738 • other assets S/' 
S7^S "^' T"^ total of $27,750,017. LiabiWies : ' Co^po atTon S^^^^^ 
$270,028; interee overdue, $411 ; other liabihties, $70.813-in all, $340 762 The 
total reveime for all purposes and from all sources amounted, in 1878 to $3^2 4 ! 
City of ToRoNTO.-Number of acres assessed (not given)- number of St ^Ilj 

Is 7n 88f ■ '''• ^"f/ '• '''l'!f '''''' ^^ ''^' ^«*'^*^' |40,2ii,884Tplol ;toS;" 
?f $4q'7rt8 WT't ' r,T '' '^?7^"^^^ ^"*'^^^ ^^^^*^' $270,151-making a grand ?o ai 
Wm-fnail $6 863 925= ^rTfj™ ^^^^^"^ures, $6,216,803 ; other'liabihtie' 
^vot,izz~m alJ, $6,853,925. The total revenue amounted, in 1878, to $2,124,535. 



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668 



COUNTY OF DUFFERIN. 



This county, which has just been organized municipallv, was formed in 1875 for 
electora purposes out of townships taken from the adjoining Counties of Grey, Simcoe 
and Welhngton. The statistics of those townships will be found included in the counties 
to which they until recently municipally belonged ; but it may be stated here that the new 
county consists of the Townships of Melancthon, Mulmur, Amaranth, Mono and East 
Garafraxa, with an aggregate area of 316,024^ acres (not including the non-resident 
acreage of East Garafraxa). Dufferin is composed of excellent farming land. The soil 
!s generally clay loam and is very productive. The internal roads are good, besides 
which the Toronto Gi-ey and Bruce EaUway runs through Amaranth and Melanc- 
thon, and the Credit Valley Railway touches the southerly corner of East G:.rafraxa 
The market facilities are, therefore, excellent. Oraugeville, the county town, 49 miles 
froni Toronto, is a thriving place, with 4,000 inhabitants. The county is generallv 
level except some parts of the Township of Mono, which are described as light and 
rough. Grain growing, particularly wheat, for which the soU is especially well 
fitted, IS the most profitable industry, but attention is being given to stock raising 
and a good deal of dairy produce finds its way to Toronto and other markets. Good 
farms fetch from $30 to $40 per acre; in oases where farm buildings are exceptionally 
good a larger price may be obtained. One reports says: "Hundreds of fairly good 
farms, of 100 acres, with sixty or seventy acres cleared, and with log buildings, can be 
got for from $2,500 to $3,000, and wild lands from $] ,000 to $1,500 Cleared land can 
be rented at from $2 to $2.50 per acre. In East Garafraxa, considerable attention has 
been paid to the improvement of farm stock, but in the other townships the common 
grades obtam. ^ 




Page. 
» 

,. 2 

m 

I. 3 

. 4 



. 13 
>n 
.. 14 

Q- 

.. 15 
.. 16 

.. 35 

.. 36 
.. 37 
.. 38 

*• 

?e 

.. 54 
a- 

. . 55 
.. 66 

t- 
.. 73 

ty 

.. 74 

y- 

.. 75 
.. 76 

id 

,. 90 
ad 

,. 91 
». 
.. 92 






^5f 



V^ 4 1 K ^'-^ 




A/^^ iPjV/ 7 



fm 




eleo 

and 

to V 

cou) 

Gar 

aor( 

is ^ 

whi 

thoi 

Tlie 

fror 

levc 

rou| 

fittf 

and 

fan 

goo 

fan 

got 

be I 

bee 

gra 



»S ■*;■ 



INDEX TO VOLUME II. 

COMPRISING STATISTICAL INFORMATION CONTAINED IN 

APPENDIX B, 
WITH COUNTY MAPS. 



1 



^i 



COUNTY OF BRANT. 

rage. 

Settlement-Sf.il, Roads, and Drainage-Market Facilities- Acreage and Population -Stock Statistics 
—Local Industriea -Capacity of the Land..., 

Water -.nd Timber-Average yield o. CereaU and Rootn Jharacter of the Land-Fertilizers-Farm 

H ..na. and Out-buildin«. -Dr.iinage -rmprov-3d Michinery-Libourersand Domentic Servants. .3 

Mech:inici-Brantf ord City-Bow Park-Fruit Growing-Municipal Statistics-Stock By-laws 4 

COUNTY OF BRUCE. 

Settlement-Soil-Water-Pricen of Farms-Stumps-Fences-Houses and Out-buildings . ... ....... 13 

Draina-e- Farm M,vchin3ry Fortilixers - Uni leared Land suitable for cultivation- Acreage-1 opulation 

—Stock Statistics ••• IpV ",V"" 

Flax Culture-Stoolc llMsing -Timber- M^irket Facilities -^'louring Mills-Fact .ries, etc. -The Km- 

cardim; Silt Wells-Local Industries -Fruit Culture ^^> 

Railroads, etc. -Municipal Statistics-Stock By-laws '' 

COUNTY OF CARLETON. 

Settlement -Character of the Soil-V/ater Prices of Farms-Stumps- Fences 35 

H,mses and Out-buildings -Drainage-Farm Machinery- -Fertilizers-Uncleared Lands- Acreage- ^^ 

Poi)ulation— Capacity r f the land ' 

Wages-Stock and Stock Laws-Fruit Culture -Market Facilities-Local Industries J7 

Municipal Statistics-Mineral Products 

DURHAM AND NORTHUMBERLAND. 
rfettlement-CharE.cter of the Soil-Water-Prices of Farms-Stumps-Fences-Farm Houses and Out- 
buildings Drainage-Farm Machinery-Fertilizors-Uncleared Lands-Acreage and Average 

Products Japacitv of the Land -Stock -Timber Lands 54 

M irket Facilities -Local Industries-Population -Municipal Statistics-Stock By-laws-Communica- ^_ 

tions - Meoiianics, Farm Labourers and Servants _' 

Woollen and other Factories -Climate- Water Power- Fruit Culture-Horse Breeding 5f> 

COUNTY OF ELGIN. 
Hettlement-Chara. ter of the Soil-Water-Prices of Farms-Stumps-Fences-Farm Houses and Out- ^ ^ 

buildings • il", n ' -^ 

Drainage -F..rm Machinery-Fertilizers -Uncleared Lands- Acreage and Average Products-Capacity 

of the Land— Stock • '"■ V x ".".'•"'" eV i n 

Timber Luids-Market Facilities -Municipal r;ta.tistics -Population-Local Industries -Stock By- 

76 

laws C umate . . 

iMech^nics, Labourers and Servants -Water Privileges -Fruit Culture-Communications 7b 

(X)UNTY OF FS8EX. 
S3ttlem3nt -Character of the Soil-Wator-Prices ..f Farms -Stumps -Fences -Farm Dwellings and 

Out-buildings-Drainage-Farm Machinery • • • • • 

Artificial Fertilizers -Uncleared Lands -Average Acreage under Crops-Stock-Capacity of the Land 

—Timber Lands V, ".,'.' 'kc'l • 

Local Industries -Fruit (^lUure-Population-Municipal Statistics-Market 1 acilities-Mechanics, 

Labourers and Servants-Stock By-laws '-^2 



# ^*Jtr 



11. 



ONTARIO AGRICULTURAL COMMISSION. 



COUNTY OF FRONTENAC. 



Page. 



Stttlement-Characterrf the Soil -Water— Prices of Farms— Stumpa— Fences— Farm Houses and Out- 
buildings-Drainag(3-Farm Machinery— Artificial Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands-Acreage and 
Average Products -.Qr. 

Capacity of the Land -Stock-Timber Lands-Market Facilities and Communications-Local Indus- 
tries— P ulation— Municipal Statistics j^Og 

Stock By-laws— Mechanics, Farm Labourers, etc hq 

COUNTY OF GREY. 

Settlement— Character of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms— Stumps— Fences 128 

Farm Houses and Out-buildings— Drainage -Farm Machinery— Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands -Acreage 

and Average Products— Stock— Timber Lands— Market Facilities 129 

Local Industries— Population— Municipal Statistics— Fruit Culture— Mechanics, Farm Labourers and 

Domestic Servants — Stock Laws ion 

COUNTY OF HALDIMAND. 

Settlement— Character of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms— Stumps I47 

Fences— Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings- Drainage-Farm Machinery -Fertilizers— Uncleared 

Lands— Acreage and Average Products- Capacity of the Land , 143 

Stock'— Timber Lands— Market Facilities- Local Industries— Population— Municipal Statistics— Me- 
chanics, Farm Labourers and Domestic Servants— Stock Laws I49 

Water Power— Gypsum Deposits -Scenery —Climate— Fruit Culture 150 

COUNTY OF HALIBUllTON. 

Settlement— Character of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms— Stumps— Fences 164 

Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings -Drainage— Farm Machinery— Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands- 
Acreage and .'• verage Products —Stock— Timber Lands 165 

Market Facilities— Local Industries— Population— Municipal Statistics 160 

COUNTY OF HALTON. 

Settlement— Character of the Soil— Wi'-er- Prices of Farms— Stumps— Farm Dwellings and Out- 
buildings , , jjg 

Drainage— Farm Maohinery-l^'ertilizers— Uncleared Lands— Acreage and Average Products— Stock- 
Timber Lands — Market Facilities I79 

Fruit Culture — Stock By-Laws i^q 

COUNTY OF HASTINGS. 

Settlement— Character of the Soil— Water -Prices of Farms— Stamps „ „ . , 189 

Fences— Farm Dwellings and Out-buililings— Drainage— Farm Machinery— FerC 7, -s - Uncleared 

Lands — Acreage and Average of Products 190 

Capacity of the Land -Stock— Timber Lands— Market Faciliticj- Local Industries— Population- 
Stock By-laws , . . , , 191 

Fruit Culture _ 192 

COUNTY OF HURO>; . 

Settlement— Character of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms— Stumps— Fencet 209 

Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings- Drainage— Farm Machinery-Fertilizers -Uncleared Lands- 
Acreage and Average Products— Stock and Stock Laws 210 

Timber Lands— Miirkeh Facilities -L'jcal Industries-Population— Munu-.ipal Sta'i .ties— Mcch^-nics, 

Farm Labourers and Domestic Servants— Salt Production 211 

Fruit Culture- -Internal CJommunications —Egg Packing 212 



T 



,i 



... 209 
Is— 
... 210 

iCR, 

.. 211 

... 212 



k 



INDEX TO APPENDIX B. 



in. 



COUNTY OF KENT. 

Settlement-Character of the S^^il-Water - Price.s of Farms-Sturapa-Fenc-eH "''S 

Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings- Drainage-Farm Machinery- Fertilizers-Uncleared Lands- 
Acreage and Average Products— Stock 233 

Fruit— Timber Lands— Market Facilities-Local Industries-Population '...'.'.'.'.'.'.......... 23i 

COUNTY OF LAMBTON. 

Settlement -Character of the Soil- Water-Prices of Farms-Stumps-Fences-Farm Dwellings and 
Out-buildings 

Drainage-Farm Machinery-Fertilizers-Uncleared Lands-.\craage and Average Prodacts-Stock 

- Timber Landp — Market Facilities nri 

Local Industries-Municipal Statistics-Population-Stor.k By-laws-Mechanics, Fwin Labourers and 
Servants— Fruit Culture 

'* ^5,J 

COUNTY OF LANARK. 

Settlement-Characterof the Soil -Water— Prices of Farms-Stumps- Fences .. ... 268 

Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings-Drainage Farm Machinery- Fertilizers-Uncleared _ .-mds- 

Acreage and Average Products— Stock— Timber Lands 2t'9 

Market Facilities-Local Industries- Population-Mun.cipal Sta' ,t,cs- Stock By-laws-Mechanicg*, 

Farm Labourers and Servants Q^n 

LEEDS AND GRENVTLLE. 

Settlement— Character of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms-Stumps— Fences 288 

Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings-Drainage -Farm Machinery -Fertilizers- Uncleared Lands - 

Acreage and Average Proil-cts— Stock— Timber Lands 289 

Market Facilities— Local Industries— Population— Municipal Statistics-Stock By-laws 290 

LENNOX AND ADDINOTON. 

Settlement-Character of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms— Stumps 310 

Fences-Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings-Drainage-Farm Machinery-Fertilizers- Uncleared 

Lands — Acreage and Average Products _ _ rj^j^ 

Stock— Timber Lands— Market Facilities— Local Industries— Farm Labourers and Domestics— Munici- 
pal Statistics .> ^o 

COUNTY OF LINCOLN. 

Settlement— Character of the Sot' -WatL-r— Prices of Farms- Stumps— Fences . 32c 

Ftvrm DwoUin, ^ and Out-buiklings— Drainage -Farm :Machinery— Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands- 
Acreage and .Lveragfi Products— Stock 327 

Timber r,aiuls— Market l-'acilit: ..-Locid Industries -PopulatioL-Munic-pal Statistics-Fruit Statistics 

— Fruit Culture — Mec'.anics, Laliourers and Doiue.'<tic Servants 328 

COUNTY OF MITiiJLiiSKX. 

Settlement— Charact^ f ,i fm Soil— Water— Prices of Farms 339 

Stumps — Fences -Fann dwellings and (hit-buildings— DnMnage — Farm Machinery — Fertilizers — 

Uncleared Lands- Acreage and Average Products 34O 

Stock— Timber Lands- sf i-l.et Facilities — Local Industries— Population — Mechanics, Farm L bourers 

mil Domestic Servants 34-^ 

Muniiipal Statistics— Fruit Culture 342 

COUNTY OF NORFOLK. 

Settlement — Oha, a. j'r of the Soil — Water - Prices of Farms 360 

StumpB— Fences— Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings — Improved Farm Machinery — FertjlizerH — L^n- 

clearfc. \jands— Acreage anil Average Products — Timber Lands , 3^1 

Markit Faciiif ■■..^— Local Industries — Population— Municipal Statistics-- Stock and Stock By-laws— 

Mech i;. " , Farm Labourers and 1 )omestic Servants — Frui* Culture 362 



IV. 



ONTARIO AGRICULTURAL COMMISSION. 



OOUNTY OF ONTARIO. 



Page. 



Settlement— Character of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms— Stumps 374 

Fences -Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings-Drainage-Improved Farm Machinery-Fertilizora- 

Acreage and Average Products -Stock and Stock By-laws 375 

Timber Lands-Market Facilities -Local Industries-Population-Munioipal Statistics-Mechanics, 

Farm Labourers and Domestics • 



376 



COUNTY OF OXFOKD. 



Settlement— Character of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms— Stumps— Fences— Farm Dwellings and 

Out-buildings 004 

Drainage— Improved Farm Machinery— Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands— Acreage and Average Products 

-Stock and Stock By-laws— Timber Lands 305 

Market Facilities— Municipal Statistics— Local Industries -Population— Farm Labourers and Domestic 
Servants 



396 



COUNTY OF PEP:L. 



Settlement— Character of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms -Stumps— Fences , 412 

Farro^Dwellings and Oiit-buildings-Drainagfe— Improved Farm Machinery— Fertilizers— Uncleared 

Lands— Acreage and Average Products— Fruit Culture— Stock and Stock By-laws 413 

Timber Lands— Market Facilities— Local Industries— Population— Mechanics, Farm Labourers and 

Domestics 



414 



COUNTY OF PERTH. 

Settlement-Char, ^ter of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms— Stumps— Fences— Farm Dwellings and 

Out-buildings ^24 

Drainage- Farm Machinery— Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands— Acreage and Average Products— Stock 

and Stock By-laws— Timber Lands 425 

Market Facilities \ Industries— Population— Fruit Culture-Municipal Statistics— Mechanics, 

Farm Lab' .1 J Domestic Servants 42g 

COUNTY OF PETERBOROUGH. 

Settlement— Character of the Soil— Water -Prices of Farms— Stumps— Fences 444 

Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings- Drainage-Farm Machinery— Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands- 

Acreaf e and Average Products— Stock and Stock By-laws— Timber Lands 445 

Market Facilities- Local Industries— Population- Municipal Statistics -Mechanics, Labourers and 



Domestics 



446 



PRESCOT^' AND RUSSELL. 

Settlement- Character of the Soil— Water— Prices of Farn.a 462 

Stumps— Fences— Farm Dwellings and Out-lniildings— Drainage -Earn, Machinery— Fertilizers— Un- 
cleared Lands— Acreage and Average Products 453 

Stock and Stock iiy-laws— Market Facilities— Local Industries— Timber Land? - IVtun' upal Statistics— 

Population— Farm Labourers and Domestics 454 



r!OUNTY OF PRINCE EDWARD. 

Settlement— Character of tha Soil -Water Prices of Karnis- Stumi>s -Fences 482 

Farm Dwellings and Out-buildings - Drainage- Farm Machinery— Fertilizers-Uncleared Lands -Acre- 
age and Average Products- Stock and Stock By-laws 483 

Timber Lands -Market Facilities— Local Induatiie8—Pjpulttf,lou--Mechanics, Labourers and Domestics 

— Municipal Statistics 434 



424 



425 



444 



462 



INDEX TO APPENDIX B. 



V. 



COUNTY OF RENFREW. 

Settlement-Character of the Soil-Water-Pi-ices of Farms-Stumps-Fences -Farm Dwellings and**'** 
Out-buildinga— Drainage-Farm Machinery- Fertilizers- Uncleared Lands 497 

Acreage and Average Products-Stock and Stock By-laws -Timber Lands-Market Facilities-Local 

Industries— Population— Municipal Statistics 493 

COUNTY OF SIMCOE. 

Settlement-Character of the Soil-Water- Prices of Farms- Stumpa-Fences-Farm Dwellings and 
Out-buildings-Drainage-Farm Machinery -Fertilizers- Uncleared Lands- Acreage and Aver- 
age Products g22 

Stock and Stock By-laws- Timber Lands- Market Facilities— Local Industries E23 

Population — Municipal Statistics ^94 

STORMONT, DUNDAS AND GLENGARRY. 

Settlement— Character ot the Soil— Water— Prices of Farms-Stumps— Fences— Farm Dwellings and 
Out-buildings— Drainage— Farm Machinery— Fert;'izers— Uncleared Lands— Acreage and Aver- 
age Products g^w 

Stock and Stock By-laws— Local Industries— Market Facilities— Timber Lands— Population— Munici- 
pal Statistics —Mechanics, Farm Labourers and Domestics— Fruit Culture 548 

COUNTY OF VICTORIA. 

Settlement— Character of the Soil -Water— Prices of Farms -Stumps— Fences— Farm Dwellings and 
Out-buildings— Drainage— Farm Machinery— Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands— Acreage and Aver- 
O'^e Products— Stock and Stock By-laws 569 

Timber Lands— Market Facilities- -Local Industries -Population -Fruit Culture— Municipal Statistics .570 

COUNTY OF WATERLOO. 

Settlement— Character of the Soil —Water -Prices of Farms— Stumps— Fences— Farm Dwellings and 
Out-buildings -Drainage— Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands- Acreage and Average Products— Stock 
and Stock By-laws— Timber Lands— Market Facilities -Local Industries— Population- 
Mechanics, Labourers and Domestics- Municipal Statistics 688 

COUNTY OF WELLAND. 

Settlement -Character of the Soil -Water— Prices of Farms -Stumps— Fences COO 

Farm Dwellings and Out-buildinga -Drainage -Farm ^Machinery— Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands— 
5tC3!^Acreage and Average Products Stock and Stock By-laws -Timber Lands— Market Faciliti'?s . . 601 
Local Industries -Population— Mechanics, Laliourers and Domestics —Fruit Culture— Municipal 

Statistics 602 

COUNTY OF WELLINGTON. 

Settlement — Character of the Soil Water -Prices of F.inis— Stumps — Fences 614 

Farm] Dwellings and Out-lmildiiigs-Drainage -Farm Maciiinery -Fertilizers— Uncleared Lands — 

Acreage and Average Products — Population , G16 

Stock and Stock By-laws Local Industries -Market Facilities— Timber Lands— Mechanics, Labourers 

and Domestics — Municipal Statistics 616 

COUNTY OV WEXTWORTH. 

Settlement -C'haracter of the Soil- Water — Price>*i." Farms — Stumps — Fences — Farm Dwellings and 

Out-lniildings 634 

Drainage— Farm ALichinery-Fertilizers— I'ncleared Lands -Acreage and Average Products— Stock 

and Stock By-laws— Timber Lands— Market Facilities (j35 

Local Industries — Population ■ M.uhanics, Labourers and Doniestics - Municipal Statistics , . , 636 



VI. 



ONTARIO AGRICULTURAL COMMISSION. 



COUNTY OF YORK. 
Settlement-Character of the Soil-Water-Prices of Farms-Stumps-Fences. . ^^^'. 

Farm Dwellings and Out-buil.lingB-Draina.e-Farm Machinery-FertilizerB-UncleaVed ' Lands- 
Acreage and Average Products -Stock .-vnd Stock By-laws .,„ 

Tmber Land. -Market Facilities -Local Industries-Population-Mechani'crFarm Labour;; "a'nd 
Domestics -Municipal Statistics ""urers ana 

• 660 

NEW COUNTY OF DUFFERIN 

668 



STATISTICAL INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE TOWNSHIPS IN THE 



ONTARIO. 



PROVINCE OF 



Albermarle, County of Bruce *^^" 



Brantford, County of Brant 

Burford, " " 

Brant, County of Bruce 

Bruce, County of Bruce 

Brighton, County of Northumberland . 

Bayham, County of Elgin 

Bedford, County of Frontenae 

Bentinck, County of Grey 

Bingor, County of Hastings 

Bayfield, County of Huron 

Bosanquet, County of Lanibton 

Brooke, County of Lanibton 

Bathurst, County of Lanark 

Beokwith, " ' 

Burgess, North, County of Lanark .... 



17- 34 
17- 34 



Amabel, 
Arran, 

Alnwick, County of Northumberland ...'...' 17-34 

AJdborough, County of Elgin 57—72 

Anderdon, County of i:ssex ~ ^^ 

Artemesia, County of Grey 03-106 

Anson & Hindon, County of Haliburton . 131-146 

Ashf^eld, County of Huron 167-177 

. " 01 Q OOf 

Augusta, County of Grenville -i-o ^oi 

Amherst Island, County of Lennox and Addington , S'll^or 

Anglesea and Kaladar, County of Lennox and Addington . -^tj^Z 

Adelaide, County of Middlesex 

Albion, County of Peel '^.ft~^^. 

Asphodel, County of Peterborough 

Alfred, County of Prescott 

Ameliasburgh, County of Prince Edward 

Athol, County of Prince Edward ' _' 

Admaston, County of Renfrew .... 
Algona, South, County of Renfrew 

Alice, County of Renfrew 

Adjala, County of Simcoe. . . . . .....'.'.'........,,, 499-520 

Amaranth, County of Wellington -.520- 543 

Arthur, County of Wellington. . . 
Anoaster, County of Wentworth . 



415 423 
447-461 
465—481 
-496 
485-406 
499—520 
499—520 



617 -633 
617—633 
637-647 



5- 12 

5- 12 

17- 34 

17- 34 

57- 72 

77— 89 

111-127 

131-146 

193—208 

213-231 

253-267 

253-267 

271 237 

271-287 

271-287 



' 



INDEX TO APPENDIX B. 



Vll. 



Page. 

. 648 

, 049 
d 
. 650 

. 668 



Page. 

Burgess, South, County of Leeds 291—309 

Bastard, County of Grenville 291—309 

Biddulph, County of Middlesex 343—359 

Brock, County of Ontario 377 393 

Blandford, County of O.xford 397 4H 

Blenheim, County of Oxford 397 411 

Blanshard, County of Perth 427—443 

Belmont, County of Peterborough 447 461 

Burleigh, " " 447—461 

Bagot, County of Renfrew 499—520 

Bromley, " " 499—520 

Brudenell, " " 499—520 

Brougham," " 499—520 

Bexley, County of Victoria 57I — 586 

Bertie, County of Welland 603—613 

Barton, County of Wentworth 637—647 

Beverley, " " 637—647 

Binbrook, " " 037—647 



.. 



Carrick, County of Bruce 17- 

Culross, County of Bruce 17- 

Cartwri^ht, County of Durham 57- 

Cavan, " " 57- 

Clarke, " " .57- 

Cramahe, " " 57- 

Colchester, North, County of Essex 93- 

Colchester, South, " " 93- 

Clarendon and Millar, County of Frontenac 111- 

CoUingwood, County of Grey 131- 

Canboro', County of Haldiniand 151- 

Cayuga, NortJi, County of Haldimand 151- 

Cayuga, South, " " 151- 

Cardiff , County of Haliburton 107- 

Carlow and Mayo, County of Hastings 193- 

Colborne, County of Huron 213- 

Camden, County of Kent 235- 

Chatham, " " 235- 

Crosby, North, County of Leeds 291- 

Crosby, South, " " 291- 

Camden, East, County of Lennox and Addington 313 

Caistor, County of Lincoln 329- 

Clinton, " " 329- 

Caradoc, County of Middlesex 343- 

Charlotteville, County of Norf(ilk 363- 

Caledon, County of Peel 415- 

Chinguacouhy, C'l .unty of Peel 415- 

Caledonia, County of Preacott 465- 

Cambridge, County of Russell 405- 

Cuniherland, " " 405- 

Clarence, " " 465- 

Cardwell, County of Simcoe 525- 

Cornwall, County of Stormont 549- 



.,,.,,...,.,,,,,, 549 

571- 

Crowland, County of W«lland 603 



Charlottenburir. County of Glencarry 
Garden, County of Victoria 



34 
34 

72 
72 
72 
72 
106 
106 
127 
146 
163 
■103 
163 
177 
208 
231 
249 
249 
309 
309 
325 
338 
338 
-359 
373 
423 
423 
■481 
-481 
-481 
■481 
-.545 
-.567 
■567 
■586 
■013 



,% ..-^ 



i. ^ 



viu. 



ONTARIO AGRICULTURAL COMMISSION. 






r 




Darlinjfton, County of Durham • P»8e. 

Dorchester, South, County of Elgin ^^~ ^2 

Dunwich, County of Elgin '7— 89 

Derby, County of Grey ' ' _ 77— 89 

Dunn, County of Haldimand _" 131—146 

Dysart, County of Haliburton " _ 151- ICa 

Dungannon and Faradf.y, County of Hastings 167-177 

Dover, County of Kent 193-208 

Dawn, County of Lambton '.!!.!!...!. 235-249 

Dalhousie, County of Lanark 353—267 

Darling, .......'..'..... 271-287 

Drummond, " " " 271—287 

Denbigh, County of Lennox and Addington 271-287 

Delaware, County of Middlesex *' 313—325 

Dorchester, " " " _ 343—359 

Dereham, County of Oxford 343—3,59 

Downie, County of Perth 397—411 

Dummer, County of Peterboro' • • '*27— 443 

"Douro, " " '" ' 447—461 

Dalton, County of Victoria 447—461 

Draper, " << « 571—586 

Dumfries, North, County of Waterloo 571-586 

589—599 

Eastnor, Coimty of Bruce. . . 
Elderslie " " 

Euphrasia, County of Grey . 
Egremont, " " 

Esquesing, County of Halton 

Elzevir and Grimsthorpe, County of Hastings ]ll 

Enniskillen, County of Lambton 
Eupheuiia " " 

Elmsley, North, County of Lanark 



17 

17- 

131 

131 



291— i 



193- 
253 
253 

Elizabethtown, County of Leeds ^''' ' 

Elmsley, " << 291- 

Escott, Front " " 291- 

Edwardsburg, Coimty of Grenvillo ^^^ 

Emestown, County of Lennox and Addington 

Elfrid, County of Middlesex '^^'^~ 

Ellice, County of Perth ^^'^' 

Elma, " " 427- 

Ea.sthope, North, County of Perth ' ^'^~ 

Easthope, South, " " .^\ ^^7- 

Ennismore, County of Peterborough ' " ' ' ' '*^^ " 

Essa, County of Simcoe ■*'*7~" 

Eldon, County of Victoria '''^'^ 

Emily, " " ■■■■ ■ 571 

Eramosa, County of Wellington ..'...... ^''^ 

Erin, " " *jl7 

Etobicoke, County of York ^'^'^' 

651- 



- 34 
34 
—146 
-146 
-188 
-208 
-267 
-267 
-287 
-309 
-309 
-309 

TO9 
-325 
-359 

443 
443 
443 
-443 
461 
-545 
586 
■586 
633 
()33 
667 



Fitzroy, County of Carleton 

Fredericksburg, North, County of Lennox and Addington. 
Fredericksljurg, South, '■ " « 

Fullarton, County of Perth 



39- S2 
313-325 
313-32.". 
427-443 



INDEX TO APPENDIX B. 



ix. 



Page. 

. . 57- 72 

77— 89 
• 77— 89 
. 131-140 
.. 151-l();i 
. 167-177 
• . 193-208 
. 235—249 
. . 253-2(17 
. . 271—287 
■ 271—287 
. . 271-287 
. 313-;!25 
. 343—359 
. 343-3.59 
. 397—411 
. 427—443 
. 447-461 
447—401 
. 571—586 
571—586 
. 589—599 



Page. 

Flos, County of Simcoe — 625—546 

Finch, County of Stonnont , 549 — 567 

Fonelon, County of Victoria 671—586 

Flamboro', East, County of Wentworth 637—647 

Flamboro', West, " " 637—647 

Greenock, County of Bruce 17 — 34 

Gloucester, County of Carleton 39—52 

Goulburn, " " 39—6? 

Gower, North, " " 39—62 

Goafield, County of Essex 93—106 

Glenelg, County of Grey , 131—146 

Glamorgan, County of Haliburton 167—177 

Goderich, County of Huron 213—231 

Grey, " " 213-231 

Gower, South, County of Grenville 291—309 

Gainsboro', County of Lincoln 329 338 

Grantham, " " 329-338 

Grimsby, " " 329-338 

Grattan, County of Renfrew 499-520 

Griffith, " " 499-520 

Galway, County of Peterborough 447—461 

Gwillimbury, West, County of Simcoe o25- 545 

Garafraxa,East, County of Wellington 617--6.33 

" West, " " 617—633 

Guelph, " " 617-633 

Glanford, County of Wentworth 637—647 

Georgina, County of Yorlc 651—667 

Gwillimbury, East, County of York 651-667 

North, " " 



651 -667 



Huron, County of Bruce 

Huntly, County of Carleton 

Haldimand, County of Northumberland 
Hamilton, 



17- 34 
39- 52 
57- 72 
57- 72 



Hope, County of Durham ''^ ' ^ 

Hinohinbrooke, County of Frontenac '■^l '^^' 

Howelsland, " " 111-127 

Hungerford, County of Hastings 193—208 

193-208 



-146 
213-231 
213—231 
213—231 



Huntingdon, " " 

Holland, County of Grey I'''-" 

Hay, County of Huron 

Howick, " " 

Hallett, " " 

Harwich, County of Kent 235—249 

Howard, " " 235-249 

Houj,'hton, County of Norfolk 363-373 

Hibhert, County of Perth 427-443 

Harvey, Ccmnty of Peterborough '•47 4d1 

Hawkesbury, East, United Counties Prescott and Russell 465—181 

" " West, " " 465-481 

Hallowell, County of Prince Edward 485-496 

Hillier, " " 485-496 

Hagarty, County of Renfrew 499-520 

Head, " " 



499-520 



X. 





ONTARIO AGRICULTURAL COMMISSION. 



Horton, County of Renfrew .„^*^*J 

Humphrey, County of Simcoe 

Humberstone, County of Welland 



Innisfil, County of Simcoe 



Middleton, County of Norfolk 



499-520 
525—546 
603-C13 

625-646 



17- 
17- 



34 
34 



Kincardine, County of Bruce 

KinlosH, " " _ 

Kennebec, County of Frontenac ] 

Kingston Township, County of Frontenac. .!!.'. ' .' ]]]~]Z 

Keppel, County of Grey 111—1^7 

Kitley, County of Leeds ..^...... .....[.'.'.. 131-14G 

Kenyon, County of Glengarry 291-309 

King, County of York.. 549-567 

Col— 667 

Loughboro', County of Frontenac 

Lutterworth, County of Haliburton 111-127 

Lake, County of Hastings 1B7— 177 

Lanark Township, County of Lanark ...'.'......!..'."!.... 193-208 

Leeds and Lansdowne, County of Leeds 271-287 

Rear," " ''' 291-309 

Louth, County of Lincoln \[ 291-3119 

Lobo, County of Middlesex 1 ^^^."^"^^ 

London Township, County of Middlesex 

Logan, County of Perth 

Lon«ueil, United Counties Prescott and Russell ..".".'..............'" 

Lancivster, County of Glengarry 

L"" "1. " <i 

L. .,n. County of Victoria 

Luther, County of Wellington 



343—359 
343—359 
427-443 
465—481 
649—567 
549-567 
571-586 
617-633 



March, County of Carleton . 
Marlbojo', " " 

Manvers, County of Durham 

Monaghan, South, County of Northumberland ^J~^^ 

Murray, " << ■■>7— 72 

Malahide, County of Elgin 67—72 

Maidstone, County of Essex „!^T^" 

Maiden, " "... 

Mersea, " " 

Melancthon, County of Grey .. 

Moulton, County of Haldimand 

Minden, County of Haliburton 151—163 

Madoc, County of Hastings .'.!'...!!..!..!! ]ll~^'^^ 

Marmora, " " 

Monteagle and Herschel, County of Hastings. 

McKillop, County of Huron '.'.*" 193-208 

Morris, " " 213—231 



39-52 
39-52 



93 -106 

93-106 

93 -106 

131-146 



193-208 
19.]— 208 



Moore, County of Lambton ..!!..'. ..!.^!y ' !!^~!!! 

Montague, County of Lanark . 



253—207 



Mosa, County of Middlesex '^^ ^^^ 

Metcalfe, " " ' 343-359 

McGiliJvray, County of Middlesex 4. — .i59 

... 343-359 

363-;jr3 



I 



i 



INDEX TO APPENDIX B. 



xi. 



i 



xmJL 



Mara, County of Ontario .,_^*^*" 

Mornington, County of Perth ... |] 

M.-naghan, North, County of Peterborough ' " 

Maryaburg, North, County of PrincB Kdward .' 

South, " .. ..!...'!!!! 

McNab, County of Kenf raw '^^^ 



Mono, County of Simcoe 
Medonte, " ** 


Muskoka, 


• 1 


(( 


Morrison, 


(1 


(1 


Monck, 


It 


(i 


Mulmur, 


M 


<t 



Nejiean, County of Carleton 

Norinanljy, County of Grey 

Nassagaweya, County of Halton 

Nelson, " " 

Niagara Townshii), County of Lincoln 

Nissouri, County of Middlesex 

Nissouri, County of Oxford 

Norwich, North, County of Oxford. . 
South, " " .... 

Nottawasaga, County of Simcoe 

Nichol, County of Wellington 



Onondaga, County of Brant 

Oakland, " " 

Osgoode, County of Carleton 

Olden, County of Frontenao 

Oso, " " 

Osprey, County of Grey 

Oneida, County of Haldiinand .... 

Oxford, County of Kent 

Oxford, County of Grenville 

Oxford, North, County of Oxford. . 
" East, " " .. 

West, 
Otonabee, County of Peterborough 

Oro, County of Simcoe 

Orillia, " " 

Osnabruck, County of Stormont . . . 

Ops, County of Victoria 



Percy, Cnnnty of Northumberland 
Palmerston, County of Frontenac. . 
Pittsburg, " " 

Portland, " « 



427- 
447- 

485 



-393 
-443 

-401 
-406 
-49(J 
499-520 
525—546 
525-546 
£25—545 
625—645 
625—546 



Matilda, County of Dundas .,.....' ^J^l~^l 

Mountain. " " 

Macaulay, County of Victoria \ 

Mariposa, " " 

McLean, " " 

Maryborough, County of Wellington 

Minto, " << 

Markham, County of York 



549- -r.07 
. 549-667 
. 571~r<86 
. 671—586 
. 571-586 

017- -633 
. 617-633 
. 651-667 

39-52 
131—140 
181-188 
181—188 
329—338 
343-359 
397- 111 
397-411 
397-411 
525-546 
017-633 



5—12 

5-12 

. 39—52 

. 111-127 

. 111-127 

131-146 

. 151-163 

235—249 

291—309 

397—411 

397-411 

397-411 

447—401 

525—545 

525-545 

549—507 

571—580 



57— 72 
111-127 
111-127 
111-127 




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(716) 8/2-4503 



XII. 



ONTARIO AGRICULTURAL COMMISSION. 



Proton, Cotmty of Grey Page. 

Plympton, County of Lambton 131—146 ' 

Pakenham, County of Lanark ' 253—267 

Pickering, County of Ontario . . 271-287 

Plantagenet, North, United Counties PrescottandRtlsseU ^'^~^'^ 

Plantagenet, South, " << ,7 465-481 

Pembroke, County of Renfrew 465—481 

Petewawa, " " 499— feo 

Pelham, County of Welland 499—520 

Peel, County of Wellington .... .......] 603—613 

Pilkington, County of Wellington 617-633 

Piislinch, " « 617—633 

617-633 

Rochester, County of Essex 

Rainham, County of Haldimand 93—106 

Rawdon, County of Hastings 151—163 

Raleigh, County of Kent ...,,[ " 193—208 

Romney, " « 235—249 

Ramsay, County of Lanark ' 2;i5— 249 

Richmond, County of Lennox and Addington .' 271-287 

Radcliffe, County of Renfrew 313-325 

Rolph, " <■ 499—520 

Roxborough, County of Stormont. ...."'... ' ." 199-620 

Ryde, County of Victoria. . . . ' " 549—567 

571—586 

South Dumfries, County of Brant 

Saugeen, County of Bruce 3-12 

Seymour, County of Northumberland '.!!,!!'. ■^'''~ ^* 

Southwold, County of Elgin ^7— 72 

Sandwich, East, County of Essex ....'.'.'...'.'.[.. 77- S9 

Sandwich, West, " " 93—106 

Storrington, County of Frontenac .... 



__ __ 93—106 

Sullivan, County of Grey . 111—127 

St. Vincent, " " [ 131—146 

S.ydenhiim " " 131—146 

Sarawak " " 131—146 

Seneca, County of Haldimand 131—146 

Sherbrooke, " " .151—163 

Stanhope, County of Haliburton ' ' ' ■ • • • ^^^ "^^3 

Snowden, " « 167—177 

Sidney, County of Hastings 167—177 

Stanley, County of Huron 193-208 

Stephen, " « 213—231 

Sarnia, County of Lambton 213—231 

Sombra, " << 253—267 

Sherbrooke. South, County of Lanark"! 253-267 

Sheffield, County of Lennox and Addington. *...,.. '..'."..'," 271-287 

Scott, County of Ontario 313 -325 

Scugog, " " ..,,,[] 377—393 

Smith, County of Peterborough 377-393 

Sophiashurg, County of Prince Edward.......... 447-461 

Sebastopol, County of Renfrew 485— <96 

Stafford, " ■■ 499-520 

Sunnidale, County of Simcoe 499-520 

525- 545 



T 



<£%) jh» 



T 



INDKX TO APPENDIX B. 



xiu. 



*%• ^Sl 



Somerville, County of Victoria ^^^' 

Stephenson, " " .......! 571—586 

Stamford, Count}' of Welland 571-686 

Saltfleet, County of Wentworth .^Z C03-613 

Scarborough, County of York . . . 637—647 

651 -667 

Torbolton, County of Carleton 

Tilbury, West, County of Essex ,[[ ^^~ ^'^ 

Trafalgar, County of Halton ...".'.'..,... 93-106 

Thurlow, County of Hastings ... 181—188 

Tudor, " " __ 193-208 

Tyendinaga " " . . . _ •'^93 — 208 

Tuckersmith, County of Huron ...!... 193—208 

Turnberry, " " ' ^^3 — 231 

Tilbury, East, County of Kent ...'.'.'..'. 213-231 

Townaend, County of Norfolk 235—249 

Thorah, County of Ontario 363-373 

Toronto, County of Peel 377-ot)3 

Toronto Gore, County of Peel . 



415- 



■423 

423 

525—545 

525—545 

525—545 



Tecumseth, County of Simcoe ^l^' 

Tiny, " " """ 

Tay, " " ^ 

Tossoronto, " " .... 

Thorald, County of Welland . .* 525-545 

603-613 

Usbome, County of Huron 

Uxbridge, County of Ontario . . 21"-231 

...377—393 

Vespra, County of Simcoe 

Verulam, County of Victoria !........."."!!" 625—545 

Vaughan, County of York 671— .')86 

651- 667 

Wolf Island, County of Frontenao 

Walpole, County of Haldimand 111-127 

Wawanosh, East, County of Huron 151-163 

Wawanosh, West, " "... 213—231 

Warwick, County of Lambton ..........", 213-231- 

Watford, County of Grenville 253-267 

Westminster, County of Middlesex '. 291-309 

Williams, East, " " 343—359 

Williams, West, " " ... , 343-359 

Walsingham, County of Norfolk... 343—359 

Windham, " •< 363-373 

Woodhouse, " " ■ • 363—373 

Whitby, County of Ontario .....................[[[ 363-373 

Whitby, East, County of Ontario 377-393 

Wallace, County of Perth 377-393 

Westmeath, County of Renfrew . . •...427—443 

Wilberforce, " " • 499-520 

Watt, County of Slmco3 ...,.'."."..'..'.'.'".'.'.' 499-520 

WoodandMedora, Count -of Simcoe.!!..! '....' '.^^".^'. y..'."'.". 525-546 

Williamsburg, County of Dundas 52.5-545 

Winchester, <• .. ""' 649-567 

Waterloo, County of Waterloo... " 549— 6o7 

589-699 

•••• 589—599 



Wellesley, 



XIV. 



ONTARIO AGRICULTbj^,AL COMMISSION. 



Wilmot, County of Waterloo. . 
Woolwich " " 

Wainfleet, County of Welland. 
Willou-hby, " " 

White 



irch, County of York 651— Oi 



Page. 
589— .599 
589—599 
603-613 
603-613 
67 



Yarmouth, County of Elgin 77-- 89 

Yonge, Front, County of Leeds 291—309 

Yonge and Escott, Rear, County of Leeds 291—309 

York, County of York 651— (;67 

Zone, C.iunty of Kent 235-249 

Zorra, East, County of Oxford 397—411 

Zorra, West, " " " 



397-411 



INDEX TO MAPS. 



Map of Brant 

Bruce 

Carleton 

Durham and Northumberland. 
Elgin 



Essex 

Frontenac . 
Grey 



Haldimand 
Haliburton . 

Halton 

Hastings . . . 
Huron . . . . 
Kent 



Lambton , 
Lanark . . 



Leeds and Grenville. . . . 
Lennox and Addington 
Lincoln 



Middlesex 
Norfolk . . 
Ontario. . . 
Oxford . . , 
Peel 



Perth 

Peterborough 

Prescott and Russell 

Prince Edward 

Renfrew 

Simcoe 



Page, 
4 
. . 16 
.. 38 
.. 56 



. 76 
. 92 
110 
130 
150 
166 
180 
192 
212 
234 
2S2 
270 
290 
312 



328 



342 
.362 
37« 
396 
414 
426 
446 
464 
484 
498 
524 



., 



INDEX TO APPENDIX B. 



Map of Stoimont, Dundas and Glengarry . 

" Victoria 

" Waterloo 

" Welland 

" Wellington . . . . 

" Wentworth 

" York 

" Duflferin 



XV. 

Page. 

.. 648 
.. 670 
.. 588 
.. 602 
.. 616 
.. 636 
.. 660 



-; 



"mJL'y-